1000 – 30 BCE GREECE II. ANCIENT IRAN A. Geography and Resources i. Iran is bounded by mountains, deserts, & Persian Gulf; open to invasion from Central Asia. High mountains on edges, salt desert interior, sloping plateau w/streams. ii. Limited natural resources. Water scarce; environment can only support limited population. Irrigation networks used underground tunnels; labor-intensive & advanced, under strong central authority. Mineral resources (metals) & plentiful timber. B. Rise of the Persian Empire i. Medians helped destroy Assyrians in late 7th cen. BCE. Persian Achaemenids related by marriage. 550 BCE, Cyrus took over & created new empire including Medes & Persians. ii. Built up by 3 kings: Cyrus the Great started, took Lydia & Mesopotamia. Cambyses took Egypt, contacted Libya & Nubia. Darius I: Persians more dominant. Extended empire from Indus to Thrace. C. Imperial organization and ideology i. Darius established provinces headed by satraps connected to court. Satraps hereditary; became more autonomous in far provinces. ii. Provinces had to pay tribute. Central gov’t hoarded gold/silver, causing scarcity & inflation. Well-maintained roads converged on Susa, w/garrisons. iii. Kings aloof, as masters of all. Owned & administered “king’s land.” iv. Kings were lawgivers, but permitted people to live according to their own traditions. Managed central administration @ Susa, performed ceremonies @ Persepolis. v. Major religion: Zoroastrianism. Origins unclear. Zoroaster (Zarathustra) lived between 1700-500 BCE. Monotheistic: Dual universe of good vs. evil (Ahuramazda vs. Angra Mainyu). Final judgment, heaven/hell. Dualism may have influenced Judaism & Christianity. III. RISE OF THE GREEKS A. Geography & Resources i. Part of Mediterranean ecological zone; all areas have similar climates, seasons, crops. Conducive to migration, transfer of crops/technology, & trade. Culture area includes Greek mainland, islands, & western Anatolia. ii. Reliance on rainfall (no H2O sources for irrigation). Limited water / thin, arable soil meant limited population. Few metal resources/little timber. Plentiful harbors. B. Emergence of the polis i. Post-Mycenaean “Dark Age” 1150-800 B.C.E. Ended when contact/trade w/ Med lands re-established. Phoenicians played a role & provided alphabetic system. Archaic Per. begins (800-480 B.C.E.) ii. Explosive pop. growth. Causes: shift from pastoral to agricultural eco, importation of foods/raw materials. Effects included urbanization, specialization, & development of polis. iii. Polis (city-state) was urban center & rural territory. Features included acropolis, agora, fortified walls, public buildings. No sharp distinction between urban & rural areas or inhabitants. iv. Frequent wars between C/S. Warfare used hoplites – close formation of infantry trying to break enemy’s defense. Soldiers mostly farmer-citizens serving short-term. v. When population outstripped resources, excess sent to colonies in Med & Black Sea. Brought Greeks into close contact w/other peoples. vi. Colonization introduced new ideas, but also sharpened Greek identity. Important idea: coins in Lydia (early 6th cen. B.C.E.) vii. Increasing prosperity & growing middle class led to mid-7th & 6th cen. emergence of tyrants, reducing power of traditional elites. Tyrants eventually rejected in favor of oligarchy or democracy. viii. Religion: anthropomorphic sky gods (many represent forces of nature). Worshiped @ state ceremonies. Sacrifice important & helped create sense of community. Sought advice from oracles (Apollo’s @ Delphi) & revered female fertility deities. C. New intellectual currents i. Archaic Greeks began developing concepts of individualism & humanism. ii. Pre-Socratic philosophers began to question religion & tried to explain rationally why world created, what it is made of, why it changes. (Sophists) iii. “Logographers” in Ionia began to gather information on Med peoples, founding of cities, & family backgrounds. Method of investigation/research called historia – adopted by Herodotus. iv. Herodotus went beyond simple collection/recording of info to offer explanations for Persian Wars in Histories. Invented modern concept of “history”. “Father of History.” (Also included legend, folktales, etc.) Thucydides: Only primary sources! v. Hellenic period sculpture very stiff and formal. D. Athens & Sparta i. Sparta: on Peloponnese in S. Greece. To ensure food supply, took over fertile Messenia & enslaved Messenians (slaves called helots). Fear of uprising led to creation of a severely ascetic, highly militarized society in which all Spartan males trained for the army & devoted lives to needs of state. ii. Athens: large hinterland (Attica) supported 5th-cen. B.C.E. pop of ~300,000. 6th cen. B.C.E., period of rule by tyrants. iii. Late 6th-early 5th cen., Athens ejected tyrant family & developed democracy. Direct democracy. Limits on citizenship. Pericles completed transition to democracy in 460s-450s. Gov’t included Assembly, Council of 500, & People’s Courts. Participation expected (or idiotes). IV. STRUGGLE OF PERSIA AND GREECE A. Early encounters i. 499-494 B.C.E., Greek cities of Anatolia, aided by Eretria & Athens, staged revolt against Persians. Led to Persian Wars: 2 Persian attacks on Greece. 1st: 490, Darius I’s generals attacked. Athenian forces won @ Marathon (Pheidippides- Nike!). ii. 2nd: 480, Xerxes led army & fleet. Many C/S submitted. Sparta organized Hellenic League (after Thermopylae, Greeks victorious). Athens took leadership; organized Delian League & drove Persians out of most of E. Med. B. Height of Athenian power i. Classical period (480-323 B.C.E.) marked by Athenian dominance – subordinated other Delian League states & became imperial power. Power based on navy. ii. Naval strength based on technological innovation (triremes) and use of lower-class men as rowers (they began to demand rights of citizenship). iii. Power used to conduct trade & extract tribute from subject states. Wealth of empire made it possible for Athens to conduct public works (Parthenon), put on festivals, and support arts & sciences (drama important!). Classical sculpture much more realistic in style. Naked male body considered peak of beauty. iv. Most influential philosophers: Socrates & Plato. Socrates focused on ethics, probed meaning of words, & used “Socratic method” of question & answer. Tried on charges of corrupting youth & not believing in gods – untrue, but sentenced to death (he really made people uncomfortable by challenging ideas/beliefs). Suicide or martyr? v. His student Plato wrote dialogues exploring concepts like justice, excellence, & wisdom. Said world we see is but a pale reflection of higher, ideal reality (allegory: The Cave). His intellectual activity is representative of transition from oral to written culture; he read & wrote books, including The Republic, and founded a school (the Academy). His most famous student was Aristotle, who gathered knowledge into systems… like scientific method. C. Inequality in Classical Greece i. Athenian democracy limited in scope; only free adult males participated (10-15% of pop). Women, children, slaves, & foreigners not citizens. ii. Slaves mostly foreign, 1/3 of pop, regarded as property. Average family owned 1 or more; treated them as domestic servants. Slavery provided male citizens with leisure for political activity. iii. Position of women varied. Sparta: relatively free & outspoken. Athens: more confined & oppressed. Marriages arranged unions of younger woman/older man. Duties of wife: produce & raise kids (esp. sons), weave cloth, cook & clean. Poorly educated. iv. Little meaningful relationship/equality between men & women, so men sought emotional & intellectual companionship with equals (other men). D. Failure of the C/S and triumph of Macedonians i. Imperial Athens triggered resentment from other Greek C/S, which led to Peloponnesian War( 431-404 B.C.E.) (Sparta’s alliance vs. Athens’). Persians paid for Spartan navy to defeat Athens. ii. Spartan arrogance inspired other C/S. The internal conflict allowed Persia to reclaim territory in W. Asia, including Greek cities in Anatolia. iii. As Greek C/S declined, kingdom of Macedonia developed as a military power. King Philip used longer spears, cavalry & infantry, phalanx, and siege equipment/catapults. iv. Philip’s son/heir Alexander (the Great) invaded Persia in 336 B.C.E. and conquered as far as Pakistan – also Egypt. Built an empire maintaining the Persian administrative system, using Persian, Greek, & Macedonian officials, encouraging intermarriage, and presenting himself as successor to the Persian king (and son of Zeus, and pharaoh. . .) New cities (Alexandria). Died @ 33 with no heir. V. HELLENISTIC SYNTHESIS A. Hellenistic kingdoms i. After Alex’s death, empire divided into 3 parts w/Macedonian rulers – Hellenistic Age (323-30 B.C.E.). ii. Seleucid Kingdom: Mesopotamia, Syria, parts of Anatolia, Iran, Indus Valley... Peripheral area lost by 2 nd cen. B.C.E. Maintained Persian-style administration and Alexander’s institution of Greek-style cities. iii. Ptolemies: Egypt, sometimes Palestine. Used centralized, well-controlled Egyptian admin/tax systems. Capital: Alexandria. Greek immigration encouraged. Did not build other Greek-style cities or try to change Egyptian lifestyle/language. Resentment of Greek rule meant uprisings common from early 2nd century on. Last Ptolemaic ruler: Cleopatra. iv. Antigonids in Macedonia & Greece. Spartans and confederations of C/S resisted Macedonian rule; Athens neutral. B. Alexandria i. Greatest Hellenistic city. Pop of ~1/2 million; Mausoleum of Alexander, Library, Museum. Served as center for politics, learning, & trade. Hellenistic sculpture had a great sense of motion and realism. ii. Greek city (but in Egypt). Greek residents were citizens, participated in gov’t Assembly & Council. Public baths, theaters, gymnasiums. Also a significant Jewish community. C. Great developments in sciences, math, philosophy. Aristarchus: earth goes around sun. Archimedes: Water displacement, etc. Euclid and Pythagoras: geometry. Epicurus: Epicureanism. Zeno: Stoics. Diogenes: Cynics. D. Hellenization included intermarriage between Greeks & non-Greeks, spread of Greek language & lifestyle, and synthesis of indigenous & Greek culture. VI. CONCLUSION A. Significance of Persian Empire i. Largest world had seen. Held together not so much by force but by ability of Persian kings to co-opt local elites & incorporate them into imperial structure. ii. Persians were masters of PR and represented themselves as benevolent rulers. B. Changes in W. Asia brought about by the Persians i. Persian Empire brought dramatic political changes to W. Asia – less significant cultural impact. ii. Greeks not considered a significant threat until Alexander. C. Cultural impact of Greeks i. Persia was a major factor in Greek political life after 2 centuries of invasion threats. ii. Alexander’s conquests in W. Asia had a deep, longlasting cultural effect. Hellenistic kingdoms used Greek soldiers, officers, & administrators and established Greek-style cities. Strong Hellenistic influence lasted 1000 years.