Introduction to Scholarship PE- 2011 - peandhealth

Critical Evaluation, Critical writing
skills & Examination Technique
Margot Bowes – Auckland University
Alison Schofield – Diocesan School for
We also acknowledge Michelle Selak’s
work in this presentation
Scholarship Physical Education
Ability to critically
evaluate to show
breadth of
knowledge & depth
of understanding
knowledge of Bio
principles and
examples of own
experiences in,
through & about
 Biophysical knowledge (types of practice; anatomy; biomechanics etc)
 Socio cultural knowledge (interpersonal skills – self, others, society;
sociological issues (obesity, body image); lifestyle; SPEECH).
 Examples drawn from your own experience in and throughout
 Examples drawn from your own readings and research – quotes from a
range of sources
 ‘Critical Evaluation” is the process of making informed and valid
judgements or conclusions supported by comprehensive knowledge and
evidence. Throughout the process we challenge assumptions and taken
for granted points of view through reflecting and examining pros and
cons, bias and different perspectives”
Successful Scholarship Students are
critical thinkers
 Connect the following series of dots with four straight lines
without taking your pen off the paper…
 The solution requires you to think outside the boundaries
of what you see…this is the essence of critical thinking.
 think outside the box
 So we consider perspectives
on an issue we may not
 So we do not accept the
norm, we challenge taken
for granted ideas.
 our thinking becomes free
from bias, prejudice and
one-sidedness of thought
The 2011 Physical Education Scholarship exam will be on Tuesday 29th
November 2 pm
Candidates will be required to answer three questions
from a choice of four questions during the three hour
 Planning, implementation and/or evaluation of physical activity
programmes/experiences, drawing upon knowledge
underpinning achievement standards 90739 and 90740.
 Trends and/or issues impacting on New Zealand society, such
as dropping out of sport, drawing upon knowledge
underpinning achievement standard 90743.
 Programmes for performance improvement drawing upon
knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90741, 90742.
 Physical activity, health promotion and taking action drawing
upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739,
90740, 90743, 90744.
 ability to critically evaluate the issue or topic by looking at both sides of the
situation, to make judgments supported by subject knowledge,
quotes/references and own experiences, to challenge assumptions, to make
creative suggestions, and to reach a justified position
 ability to provide evidence of depth and breadth of subject knowledge
 ability to allocate their time effectively to provide three comprehensive
answers ability to effectively use their own
 experiences and practical knowledge to support their answers
 ability to critically evaluate the scenarios, statements and positions tht the
questions involved
ability to respond with depth and breadth of subject content knowledge;
they were able to display evidence of wide reading and to use this to
support their argument with references
 ability to structure an essay, provide a coherent argument and justify a
 superficial use of critical thinking tools – e.g. using all parts of
S.P.E.E.C.H. superficially
 a use of general knowledge from the public domain rather than
evidence of academic subject knowledge
 inability to respond appropriately to the questions as stated; they
used prepared answers to attempt to answer the questions
 a tendency to make assumptions - e.g. “all working parents feed
their children takeaways because both parents are working” rather
than suggesting that it might be a possible factor
 a lack of depth across three questions
 an inability to pace themselves for the three hours; they did not
attempt all questions or did not complete the last essay
 a lack of breadth of knowledge across three essays
 a failure to reference quotes.
HOT TIPS FROM JEREMEY- a student who got 3 schols.
Term 2 - Breadth
Term 3 - Depth
Read articles related to each
spec throughout the L3
teaching and learning
programme and discuss with
your school schol group or
Level 3 class
Prepare sample essays for
each of the specs… ‘using’
quotes and examples
Prepare a PMIS with the
Attend PENZ/ Team Solution
Workshops meetings
Visit the team solutions wiki
Read through the exemplars
Term 4 – Structure & time
Practice tests – look at
structure of essay and time
( –
Scholarship – Resources)
3 level
3 Storey
(Plus, Minus
(add bias
after white)
Critical thinking/
Tools & Strategies
Fact vs
opinion chart
DATT tools
Court room
Issues/ Bias
Don’t just reword the
introductory paragraph –
say something different!
Use the information/
statistics given to you in
the introductory
State in this paragraph
what you know; what
would you like to know and
what is missing.
 Presents the positive
view points; i.e. what do
you agree with in the
statement put forward.
Back up with quotes,
research and your own
experiences to show
depth of understanding.
(May include SPEECH
influences, and use OPV).
 Examines a negative view point.
What do you disagree with in the
statement? Looks at weaknesses
and who is to benefit from such a
statement. Points out errors of
logic or show that the conclusion
does not necessarily follow.
When disagreeing with
something start, “I can think of
another way of looking at it /
alternative explanation” or “that
may fit some peoples values,
Examines any bias that may
What are some initiatives,
exist. Challenges validity of
new ideas, alternatives,
figures, backed up with
you or others have about
helping this issue move
forward or be improved.
Are there any blanket terms
used in the paragraph or
question? Start by defining
these terms and challenging
there use in the statement.
Are extraploitations used at
all i.e. statements that take a
trend forward and assume
the trend will continue.
 Begin…” I am now going
to conclude by
reflecting on the major
points I have
discussed”. …. Reach a
valid judgment…. In my
opinion after examining
a range of points I….
 If data is used in the
question, use this data
to back up your answer.
Make sure you are not just listing facts or ideas, that you link
your ideas, data, interpretations into a coherent
 (S) make a valid statement, or say in my opinion… (E)
Explain what you mean by this statement (how and why).
(DE) Give a detailed example backed up with evidence.
 (C) Conclude how this evidence relates to your statement.
 Use quotes, don’t just regurgitate them. If using a direct
quote follow with “I would choose to take this quote
 Make sure you put course work knowledge into your
answers where necessary. It is important that you are
familiar with what you did this year!
Term 2 - Breadth
 When you came in you
were given a coloured
piece of paper.
 Get together with your
group (4)and read the
article given to you.
 Fill in the sheet related
to your particular view
Red –
Blue –
Green –
Issues/ bias
 Wheeler (2011) suggests that ‘contrary to
commonplace assumptions regarding
‘determinants’ of sports participation,
Birchwood et al. (2008) found strong evidence
that family cultures were the chief factor
underpinning individuals’ propensities to play
sport…sporting cultures [are] transmitted
through the families studied. These cultures
were best described as ‘habituses’-sets of
beliefs and behaviours in relation to sport with
historical and social dimensions’ (p. 1).
 Another social dynamic that is a significant ‘determinant’
of sports participation,.. is age. It is well established that
sports participation rates decline with age, and the
decline is most marked between the ages of 16-23, the
period during which most individuals complete full-time
education (Roberts and Brodie, 1992). After this period,
participation rates continue to decline but at a slower
pace (Roberts and Brodie, 1992). According to Roberts et
al., (1990: n.p.) argue that the value of adopting such a
perspective is that it allows the identification of ‘critical
life-phases when longer-term leisure patterns are set’,
and of ‘any junctures and life-events which may render
existing leisure interests vulnerable. (Wheeler, 2011, p 2)
 Critically evaluate why New Zealand adolescents may
be dropping out of sport?
In your critical evaluation you could:
 Critically evaluate factors that could influence or
prevents students from continuing to play sport
 Critically evaluate the impact on New Zealand society
of adolescents continuing to drop out of sport
 Support your explanations with current trends in
sport and your own experiences.
Wheeler, S. (2011). The significance of family culture for
sports participation. International review for
sociology of sport. p. 1-18.