Critical Evaluation, Critical writing skills & Examination Technique Margot Bowes – Auckland University Alison Schofield – Diocesan School for Girls We also acknowledge Michelle Selak’s work in this presentation Scholarship Physical Education Ability to critically evaluate to show breadth of knowledge & depth of understanding Comprehensive knowledge of Bio physical principles and socio-cultural factors Practical Application Detailed examples of own experiences in, through & about movement (evidence). Biophysical knowledge (types of practice; anatomy; biomechanics etc) Socio cultural knowledge (interpersonal skills – self, others, society; sociological issues (obesity, body image); lifestyle; SPEECH). Examples drawn from your own experience in and throughout movement. Examples drawn from your own readings and research – quotes from a range of sources ‘Critical Evaluation” is the process of making informed and valid judgements or conclusions supported by comprehensive knowledge and evidence. Throughout the process we challenge assumptions and taken for granted points of view through reflecting and examining pros and cons, bias and different perspectives” Successful Scholarship Students are critical thinkers Connect the following series of dots with four straight lines without taking your pen off the paper… The solution requires you to think outside the boundaries of what you see…this is the essence of critical thinking. think outside the box So we consider perspectives on an issue we may not normally. So we do not accept the norm, we challenge taken for granted ideas. our thinking becomes free from bias, prejudice and one-sidedness of thought The 2011 Physical Education Scholarship exam will be on Tuesday 29th November 2 pm Candidates will be required to answer three questions from a choice of four questions during the three hour examination. Planning, implementation and/or evaluation of physical activity programmes/experiences, drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739 and 90740. Trends and/or issues impacting on New Zealand society, such as dropping out of sport, drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standard 90743. Programmes for performance improvement drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90741, 90742. Physical activity, health promotion and taking action drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739, 90740, 90743, 90744. ability to critically evaluate the issue or topic by looking at both sides of the situation, to make judgments supported by subject knowledge, quotes/references and own experiences, to challenge assumptions, to make creative suggestions, and to reach a justified position ability to provide evidence of depth and breadth of subject knowledge ability to allocate their time effectively to provide three comprehensive answers ability to effectively use their own experiences and practical knowledge to support their answers ability to critically evaluate the scenarios, statements and positions tht the questions involved ability to respond with depth and breadth of subject content knowledge; they were able to display evidence of wide reading and to use this to support their argument with references ability to structure an essay, provide a coherent argument and justify a position. superficial use of critical thinking tools – e.g. using all parts of S.P.E.E.C.H. superficially a use of general knowledge from the public domain rather than evidence of academic subject knowledge inability to respond appropriately to the questions as stated; they used prepared answers to attempt to answer the questions a tendency to make assumptions - e.g. “all working parents feed their children takeaways because both parents are working” rather than suggesting that it might be a possible factor a lack of depth across three questions an inability to pace themselves for the three hours; they did not attempt all questions or did not complete the last essay a lack of breadth of knowledge across three essays a failure to reference quotes. HOT TIPS FROM JEREMEY- a student who got 3 schols. Term 2 - Breadth Term 3 - Depth Read articles related to each spec throughout the L3 teaching and learning programme and discuss with your school schol group or Level 3 class Prepare sample essays for each of the specs… ‘using’ quotes and examples Prepare a PMIS with the notes Attend PENZ/ Team Solution Workshops meetings Visit the team solutions wiki (http://peandhealth.wikispac es.com/Scholarship+Page) Read through the exemplars on http://www.penz.org.nz Term 4 – Structure & time Practice tests – look at structure of essay and time (http://www.nzqa.govt.nz – Scholarship – Resources) 3 level Guide 3 Storey Intellect Model PMIS (Plus, Minus Issues, Suggestions) Debono’s Critical Thinking Hats (add bias after white) Reasonable/ Inspiration Compare And Contrast Critical thinking/ evaluating Tools & Strategies SPEECH Fact vs opinion chart DATT tools Court room battles CAMPER INTRO Positives Minuses Issues/ Bias Suggestions CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Don’t just reword the introductory paragraph – say something different! Use the information/ statistics given to you in the introductory paragraph. State in this paragraph what you know; what would you like to know and what is missing. Presents the positive view points; i.e. what do you agree with in the statement put forward. Back up with quotes, research and your own experiences to show depth of understanding. (May include SPEECH influences, and use OPV). Examines a negative view point. What do you disagree with in the statement? Looks at weaknesses and who is to benefit from such a statement. Points out errors of logic or show that the conclusion does not necessarily follow. When disagreeing with something start, “I can think of another way of looking at it / alternative explanation” or “that may fit some peoples values, however….” ISSUES SUGGESTIONS Examines any bias that may What are some initiatives, exist. Challenges validity of new ideas, alternatives, figures, backed up with you or others have about quotes. helping this issue move CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONS: forward or be improved. Are there any blanket terms used in the paragraph or question? Start by defining these terms and challenging there use in the statement. Are extraploitations used at all i.e. statements that take a trend forward and assume the trend will continue. Begin…” I am now going to conclude by reflecting on the major points I have discussed”. …. Reach a valid judgment…. In my opinion after examining a range of points I…. If data is used in the question, use this data to back up your answer. Make sure you are not just listing facts or ideas, that you link your ideas, data, interpretations into a coherent paragraph! (S) make a valid statement, or say in my opinion… (E) Explain what you mean by this statement (how and why). (DE) Give a detailed example backed up with evidence. (C) Conclude how this evidence relates to your statement. Use quotes, don’t just regurgitate them. If using a direct quote follow with “I would choose to take this quote literally….” Make sure you put course work knowledge into your answers where necessary. It is important that you are familiar with what you did this year! Term 2 - Breadth When you came in you were given a coloured piece of paper. Get together with your group (4)and read the article given to you. Fill in the sheet related to your particular view point. Red – Positives Blue – Minuses Green – Issues/ bias Wheeler (2011) suggests that ‘contrary to commonplace assumptions regarding ‘determinants’ of sports participation, Birchwood et al. (2008) found strong evidence that family cultures were the chief factor underpinning individuals’ propensities to play sport…sporting cultures [are] transmitted through the families studied. These cultures were best described as ‘habituses’-sets of beliefs and behaviours in relation to sport with historical and social dimensions’ (p. 1). Another social dynamic that is a significant ‘determinant’ of sports participation,.. is age. It is well established that sports participation rates decline with age, and the decline is most marked between the ages of 16-23, the period during which most individuals complete full-time education (Roberts and Brodie, 1992). After this period, participation rates continue to decline but at a slower pace (Roberts and Brodie, 1992). According to Roberts et al., (1990: n.p.) argue that the value of adopting such a perspective is that it allows the identification of ‘critical life-phases when longer-term leisure patterns are set’, and of ‘any junctures and life-events which may render existing leisure interests vulnerable. (Wheeler, 2011, p 2) Critically evaluate why New Zealand adolescents may be dropping out of sport? In your critical evaluation you could: Critically evaluate factors that could influence or prevents students from continuing to play sport Critically evaluate the impact on New Zealand society of adolescents continuing to drop out of sport Support your explanations with current trends in sport and your own experiences. References: Wheeler, S. (2011). The significance of family culture for sports participation. International review for sociology of sport. p. 1-18.