VOCABULARY Culture The way of life of a people, including their beliefs and practices Cultural The parts of a people’s environment that they have shaped and the technology they have used Landscape to shape it Civilization An advanced culture with cities and a system of writing Institution A custom or organization with social, educational, or religious purposes Example of Cultural Landscape Japanese (Bonsai tree shape) What is Culture? Definition? Parents pass culture on to their children Keep in mind, culture traits (?) can change over the years Elements of Culture Visible Culture Material possessions: clothes, homes, technology, food Sports Literature and art Non-Visible Culture Language Ideas Spiritual Beliefs Government and politics Visible Culture Non-Visible Culture Culture and Environment Geographers want to know: How environment affects culture Ex: Japan has mountains and isolated islands Farming is not good so they turned to fishing ANY OTHER EXAMPLES YOU CAN THINK OF? But, environment doesn’t dictate culture…(meaning ?) Ex: Greece has an environment like Japan but Greeks have pasture land for goats to graze People and Environment People create technology, technology impacts culture and environment Ex: Cultural landscape Indonesia—farmers cared places into hillside to farm Development of Culture 4 Major Advances in Technology Ways of Life Changes as Time Goes On 1.) Inventions of tools millions of years ago 2.) Control of fire 3.) Beginning of agriculture 4.) Development of civilization (?) In the past: People were primarily hunter & gatherers Travel from place to place, fish & hunt As time went on: Discovery of how to grow crops Taming of wild animals to work or raise to eat Farming became a bigger deal Technology & Civilizations Agriculture provides steady food supply Farmers can grow more food than they need Allowed products to be traded for food Agriculture paved way for: Laws to be created to help with trade and politics To store information used: Writing was created First civilizations produced 5000 years ago Farming helped civilization spread throughout the world 200 years ago: Machines were created as new technology Industrial Revolution—growth of cities, science and technology R E A P E R SICKLE HARVESTER Development of Institutions Simple institutions (?) came before the big Agricultural Revolution Extended families Political institutions—group of elders, small councils Cities formed, more complex institutions were needed Organized religions, armies, governments, schools were needed as cities developed Modern Day Institutions Museums Sports Clubs Corporations Political Parties Universities VOCABULARY Society Social Structure Social Class Nuclear Family Extended Family A group of people sharing a culture A pattern of organized relationships among groups of people within a society A grouping of people based on rank or status A mother, father, and their children A family that includes several generations Can range from: Small like a single community to as large as a nation Could be a group of similar nations How Society is Organized Groups within a society: Work together on certain tasks Ex: To get food, to protect, to education, etc Social structure helps people work together to meet basic needs Family is most important unit of society Teaches customs and traditions Children learn to dress, act, eat, play, etc Person’s status or position can come from: Wealth Land Ancestors Education Social Classes In the Past: It was hard to move up in social class Today: People are equipped with tools needed to move up Ex: Can obtain a good education Make more money Marry someone of a higher class NOT ALL CULTURES DEFINE FAMILY IN THE SAME WAY Ex: Nuclear family, extended family See these primarily in developed (?) nations Kinds of Families Nuclear Family Name comes from word “nucleus” meaning center Elders in family are often respected for their knowledge and experience Older family members pass on traditions Extended families are becoming less common Because: people are moving from rural to urban LANGUAGE ALL CULTURES HAVE LANGUAGE Language is the basis for culture Majority of communication w/ others depends on language Verbal or nonverbal What does language reflect? If you speak a different language? The things that are important to that certain culture Ex: Christian and Jewish concepts have words to depict things like baptism or sabbath Ex: Some languages have concepts that have no English translation People can speak more then 1 language (?) Celebrate different holidays Have different customs Language preserves shared ideas and traditions RELIGION AN IMPORTANT PART OF EVERY CULTURE Beliefs and practices will differ among religions The same country can have different religions What does Religion do? Help make sense of the world Provide comfort and hope Answer questions about meaning & purpose of life Guide people in ethics Islam, Judaism & Christianity Hinduism & Other Traditional Religions ALL RELIGIONS Believes in 1 God Believe in more than 1 God Have prayers and rituals Celebrates important places and times Expect to treat one another well & behave properly VOCABULARY Cultural Diffusion The movement of customs and ideas Acculturation The process of accepting new ideas & fitting them into a culture How Do Cultures Change? ALL CULTURES CHANGE OVER TIME DON’T WRITE JUST LISTEN Example of Blue Jeans: Many cultures contributed to them although they were invented in the US in 1800s. Marketed by Levi Strauss He was German but moved to California Made them w/ denim shortened from serge de Nimes which is a cloth from France Blue jeans became popular in other countries 1980’s Japanese and French developed “stonewashing” process that makes brand new jeans look worn Jeans comes from French name for Genoa, where a similar cloth to denim was first made Why Cultures Change New Technologies Cultures change all of the time Why?---Culture is an entire of way of life A change in 1 part is going to change many parts Ex: Changes in natural environment, technology & ideas 1800s & early 1900s Growth of industry drew Americas from countryside to city Factories offered jobs to 1000s of men, women & children Limited transportation so ppl had to live close Invention of the Car Cars were more affordable 1920—many Americans owned them People could drive to work Result—suburbs in mid 1900s How Does 1 Change Lead to Another Write down 1 way technology has changed culture of the United States: 1.) Instant info is a part of our culture Radios, TV’s and Computers Technology has added new words to our language Ex.: Broadcast, Channel Surfing, Hacker Can you think of any other words? Cultural Change Over Time Been going on for a long Ex: Ways of life, getting food, transportation, types of jobs How Ideas Spread By people moving Give me an example Trading goods and products (?) Sports Literature and other written material How Cultures Adopt New Ideas Example of Cultural Diffusion Baseball: An American sport that is played all around the world but different countries change the game to make sense with their culture Americans have to have a winner due to competition Japan will end the game in a tie w/ no extra innings Communication Technology & the Speed of Change What’s the fastest way to get from your house to Japan? Plane? Phone Call? The internet? Depends on what your looking for in Japan 1000’s of years cultures changed slowly (Examples) Communication Technology has changed that—faxes & computers transport info almost instantly, magazines & computers Now done much faster Benefits Scientists can share info about curing diseases through computers Telephones let us talk to people hundreds of miles away Cameras and documentaries let us see all parts of the world Defending Traditions Change can help but can also hurt People may feel that their traditions are threatened with change Once traditional knowledge is lost it can’t be given back Work to preserve traditions Why?