Essay Writing Workshop

Daily Goals
• Content Goals:
– Understand the role the work of Muckrakers played in
reforming the abuses of industrialization.
• Literacy Goals:
– Understand the terms “muckraker” and “urbanization.”
– Read primary sources to understand the work of
• Social Goal:
– Work in partners to evaluate the quality of an essay.
– Focus conversation into partnered and class discussion.
Quick Fire
The New Colossus
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
This unit is about the rise of
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
industry, cities, and
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!
Explain how this poem could
be used to fit all three themes
• Farms->Cities
• Journalists helped reformers by exposing
• Muckrakers wrote about problems that were
hidden and exposed them
• They “Raked the Muck” or cleaned up the dirt
and corruption in the world.
Famous Muckrakers
• Lincoln Steffens – Exposed corrupt machine
politics in NYC, Chicago, and other cities
• Ida Tarbell – Described the unfair practices of
the oil trust
Upton Sinclair
• Sinclair was a
muckraker who wrote a
book about the
meatpacking industry
• Sinclair wanted to show
the public how the
workers were
• Instead, he uncovered
disgusting truths including,
meat falling on the ground,
rats and other rodents
being grounded into the
meat, and mislabeling the
• Congress responded by
passing the Meat Inspection
Act in 1906, along with the
Pure Food and Drug Act,
banning the sale of harmful
The Jungle
• What were some of the job hazards of
working in the meat-packing industry?
• After the publication of The Jungle, Upton
Sinclair wrote that he had “aimed for the
public’s heart and hit it in the stomach.” What
do you think he meant?
Tenement Life
• What were some of the dangers of living in
“dumb-bell tenements?
• Who would live in tenements, and why would
they tolerate such bad conditions?
Quick Fire
Quick Fire
Inspection cards like this were issued to
each immigrant during processing.
Mental Competency
Immigrants with
suspected mental
deficiencies were
asked to assemble
block puzzles or “pick
out the smiling faces”
to prove their