CHAPTER 15 ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT Introduction: Organization development (OD) is a planned approach to improve employee and organizational effectiveness by conscious interventions in those processes and structures that have an immediate bearing on the human aspect of the organization. OD is response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, challenges and the dizzying rate of change itself. Characteristics: Planned change Comprehensive change Long range change Dynamic process Participation of change agent Emphasis on intervention & action research. Normative educational process History Of Organization Development Laboratory training background Action-research/survey-feedback background Participative management background Quality of work life (QWL) background Process Of Organization Development Problem identification. Data collection. Diagnosis. Structural analysis. Processes analysis. Function analysis. Domain analysis. Evaluation and feedback OD PROCESS, AHMED 1972 Motivation for change Data collection, problem identification & diagnosis Planned strategy for change Intervening in the system Reinforcement and follow up Monitoring and evaluation OD Interventions: Survey Feedback – Major thrust in the development of OD has come from survey research and feedback of data. The Process: 1. Data collection 2. Feedback of information 3. Follow up action Sensitivity Training OD Interventions: Grid Training, the process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Managerial grid Teamwork development Inter group development Developing ideal strategic corporate model Implementing the ideal strategic model Systematic critique Team Building OD Interventions: Process Consultation, the process – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Initiate contact Define the relationship Select the setting and the method Gather data & make a diagnosis Intervene Reduce involvement & terminate Problems in OD, the criticism: There is discrepancy between ideal & real situations, OD tries to achieve ideal without taking into account real. OD makes people unfit for the real organizations world because no organization can fully adopt open system concept. Resistance to change is a natural phenomenon & OD puts undue pressure to change. OD fails to motivate people with low level of achievement needs. If an organization is laden with these people, it is useless to try OD. OD programs are often quite costly.