geography: the study of earth

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Geography Test: Study Guide
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Key Terms:
geography: the study of earth
latitude: imaginary lines that travel east to west and measure north to south.
Remember: LATitude like the steps of a ladder
longitude: imaginary lines that travel north to south and measure east to west.
Remember: LONGitude lines are long
cardinal directions: the directions north, south, east, and west
parallel: lines of latitude
meridians: lines of longitude
globe: a model of the earth
projection: a representation of the earth’s rounded surface on a flat surface
hemisphere: half of the earth
compass rose: a diagram of a compass showing direction
key: the section of a map that explains the symbols and colors
Key Concepts:
~Geographers work to answer 2 questions
 Where are things located? Why are they there?
~There are 5 themes that help geographers organize information about the earth
 Movement: explains how goods, ideas, and people move from one place to
another. Ex- radios and computers help information spread across the globe
 Regions: geographers use regions to group places that have something in
common. Ex- when people move to a new place, they bring food with them
 Human-Environment Interaction: this theme explores how people affect the
environment and how the environment affects people. Ex- cutting down trees
 Location: where a place is.
 Absolute location is when latitude and longitude are used to find the
location. Ex- Connecticut is found at 73 degrees W and 43 degrees North.
 Relative location names the location in relation to another location. ExConnecticut is south of Massachusetts.
 Place: includes the human and physical features of a specific location.
 Physical feature: describes the land, climate
 Human feature: describes culture
Maps vs. Globes
 The best way to represent the earth is on a globe.
 globes help to show continents and oceans as they really are, but globes are
not complete enough to be useful for finding directions.
 globes are not portable and cannot show streets and towns
 maps can be more complete, but since they are flat, it is impossible to show
earth without distortion.
 maps are convenient enough for everyday use
 GIS: the geographic information system is a computer-based system that
links information to locations.
 Mercator Projection: make areas near the poles look bigger. It shows
correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes.
 Equal-Area Projection: shows the correct size of landmasses, but their
shapes are altered
 The Robinson Projection: many geographers believe that this is the best
world map available
 mapmakers rely on ground surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite images
and GIS to make maps more accurate
The Parts of a Map
 Compass rose is a diagram showing directions
 Key (legend) explains the symbols and shading
 Scale bar shows how distances on the map compare to actual distances
 Locator globe shows the location of an area covered by the map
 Title tells what the map is showing