THE DARK AGES ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Europe change after the fall of the Roman Empire? ` Some Information • I will call this: Europe, Medieval Europe, Middle Ages or Dark Ages. • Covers about 500 AD -1500 AD • Most of our influences in this country are European. LOST EMPIRE • When Rome fell in 476, knowledge, law, culture, and technology fell with it. • The army was lost, leaving the people with no protection. • Europe broke up into a bunch of kingdoms each with their own laws and leaders. SURVIVAL • People lived in small villages and nearly everyone had to farm to provide enough food. (agriculture!) • If everyone is farmer, there are no artists, lawyers, teachers, etc. • This made the loss of knowledge even worse. GEOGRAPHY • Europe is bordered by water. • Highly populated. • 1/3 of the land is good for farming. (that’s a lot!) • Forests provided plenty of wood (natural resources) 3 ZONES • South- warm temp, seasonal rain – excellent farming. • North – slightly heavily natural resources. colder, forested – lots of • Scandinavia – very cold, relied on the ocean for food and resources, very different from the other two. SOCIETY PEASANT LIFE Peasant - small farmers or farm laborers of low social rank . FOOD • Everything had to be boiled because of the “fertilizer” used in the fields. • Main food was pottage. • You’d take whatever food you could and boil it. Yummy! Things lost from the Roman Empire Good zones to live in and why Thing people had to do before eating their food (Food people ate) ESSENTIAL QUESTION What role did the Christian Church play in the Dark Ages? The Church CHURCH INFLUENCE • If the church commanded something – give money, go to war, etc.– you did it. • If you disobey them they might send you to Hell! • They were the law! (10 commandments focus) CHURCH RESPONSIBILITIES • Churches provided: - Help for the poor. - Education. - Entertainment. - Salvation. VOCABULARY TO KNOW: • Excommunication- removing someone’s membership to a church. (kick them out!) • Salvation- the removal of the penalties of sin. • Cathedral- a large church building Cathedrals CATHEDRALS • The cathedrals were like amusement parks! • They were unlike any other buildings – even the castles. • They took decades to build but could bring in tourists and money. • It was a matter of pride but also a sign of their faith in God. HOW?!?! • They used thousands of tons of rocks. • Hundreds and hundreds of workers for up to 50 years. • Very dangerous - many died in the process. • Whatever technology there was in the Dark Ages went into these buildings. ESSENTIAL QUESTION Describe the governments that arose in the Dark Ages. CHRISTIANITY • Since there was no true emperor to follow, the church essentially became the leader of Europe. • Monasteries popped up all over Europe spreading the word of God. • This began to give people the sense of community needed for a strong nation. THE BIRTH OF KINGS THE KING • After Rome fell, Europe split up into small states ruled by kings. • They were not elected. • Instead, they were born as kings and considered “chosen by God.” (divine right) THE VIKINGS VIKINGS • A group from Scandinavia in northern Europe. • The land there is often frozen over so very little food was available. • Eventually their population got so big they had to go south to find food – and they did not go peacefully! THE VIKINGS • The arrival of Viking raiders destroyed this unity. • The people once again focused purely on survival. • Trade stopped, learning stopped, the Dark Ages were back in full force. ESSENTIAL QUESTION What is Feudalism and why was it used? ECONOMICS FEUDALISM • Feudalism- a system of rule where people trade their work for protection • One guy owns the land, another works on it. • Each group of people had specific jobs to complete. FEUDALISM The Feudal System King Lords Nobles/Barons Knights Peasants/Serfs King Lords Nobles protection land (fiefs) Knights protection Peasants labor (work) EXAMPLE Peasants get: ______ Knights get: ______ Nobles get: ______ 2 x 100 Tacos (200) 4 x 50 Tacos (200) 100 Tacos 100 Tacos 100 Tacos 4 x 50 Tacos (200) 100 Tacos 100 Tacos 100 Tacos 100 Tacos 100 Tacos Imagineland 2. To nobles to support him the 4.1. 5. 3.Peasants The Taxes Theget King nobles ultimately are officially divide allowed end owns their to uplive land going all of on and the the to king divides his land and puts nobles land land the use of and king. that thebuild to country. Peasants pay farms. knights He work, They usually who pay knights then builds taxes inthe charge of their own protect, protect ato large nobles the nobles castle land collect, in and and hisserve can’t capital kingarea. leave. the gets city. king. rich. WHY? • No Roman Empire means no Roman Army. • No army means no protection. • People willingly (usually…) gave up their land to be protected. • It was all about survival. AND SO… • People turned to feudalism for protection. • Landowners hired knights to protect the peasants who agreed to work for the landowners. • This further divided Europe.