Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Fungi overview • • • • • Basic Characteristics Important ecologically Phyletic groups Lichen and Mutualism Amy’s little tidbits of “wisdom” Basic Characteristics • Heterotrophic absorbers • Saprophytes • Some unicellular but others multicellular with hyphae – Hyphae divided by septum – Chitinous cell walls • Filaments make up mycelium • Rhizoids anchor • Sexual and Asexual reproduction Sexual and Asexual reproduction • Sexual – Three phases: • Plasmogamy = N + N • Karyogamy 2N • Mieosis 2N ÷ • Asexual – Spores from sporangia and specialized hyphal cells called conidia – Fragmentation • Dispersal by air or water Ecological Importance Present everywhere • Many lifestyles – Decomposers – Symbionts – Pathogens – Parasites • Medicinal uses Decomposers Rust Common food spoilage Phyletic groups • Four phyletic groups – Chytridomycota – Zygomycota – Ascomycota – Basidiomycota • One polyphyletic group – Deuteromycetes Chytridiomycota • • • • • • Predominately aquatic Glycogen stores Coenocytic Motile cells gametes and zoospores Anchoring rhizoids Pathogens and saprophytes Coenocytic membranemany nuclei, but no partitions in between the cells NUCLEUS CELLS Zygomycota • Zygosporangia and zygospores • Coenocytic hyphae – Streaming cytoplasm • Pathogens • Parasites, saprophytes, symbionts with endomicrorhyzae Rhizopus sporangium Zygomycota: Bread molds… mmm Ascomycota “sac fungi” • • • • 75% of fungi Ascus, ascopsores Dikaryotic hyphae Ascogonium and antheridium • Molds, yeasts, edible truffles • Lichens Up close and personal with the Ascus Ascospores Asci More Asci fun!!! Why are there 8 ascospores in each ascus? Ascomycota Lifecycle Basidiomycota • Basidiospores and basidium • 37% of true fungi • Most recognizable • Edible • Molds, smuts • Symbionts, parasitic • Sori: pack of spores Cross section of basidioma Hyphae stalk Spores Gills Gill Basidiospores A close-up of a Basidiomycota gill and clusters of basidospores This is part of the sexual reproduction before karyogamy Deuteromycetes “The imperfect fungi” • Life cycles unknown or lost • Penicillin, athletes foot, ring worm • Reproduction by conidia – Most like Ascomycota • terrestrial, free living saprobes, parasitic Lichens: I’m Lichen It! • Ms. Algae and Mr. Fungi got together and started to Lichen each other. But soon, their relationship was on the Rocks! Seriously Folks…… • Important Symbiotic Relationship – Algae Photosynthesize – Fungi Absorb Nutrients, Protection, Anchorage Function • First Step in Erosion Soil Makers • Crustose, Foilose, Fruticose Shapes • AMAZING REGENERATIVE PROPERTIES Fruticose lichen Mutualistic Relationships • Mycorrhizae: “Fungi Root” • Form Relationships with Plants to Increase Water Uptake! – Mycorrihizae Fungi Also Protect Plant from pathogenic Fungi and Nematodes – In exchange, Fungi receive food as payment • Very Important For Plants’ Survival Amy’s Little Tidbits of Wisdom • Mushrooms are yummy • Edible mushrooms aren’t in your backyard… only in the stores • Why is the bread green? Truffles are not chocolate If you see a fairy ring… dance inside (don’t eat). The Fungals: Anne, Amybeth, Allison The Triple ‘A’ Threat! Coming to a lab near you!! Yes, I mean you. You are reading this aren’t you?