Chapter 10 Editable Lecture Notecards

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The prenatal period extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing
nine months of pregnancy. A great deal of important development occurs
before birth.
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The germinal stage lasts from conception to about 2 weeks. During this stage,
rapid cell division occurs, and the mass of cells migrates to the uterus and
beings to implant into the uterine wall, forming a placenta during the
implantation process.
The embryonic stage lasts from 2 weeks to 2 months and is the period when
most of the vital organs and bodily systems such as the heart, spine, and brain
emerge. The embryonic period is a time of great vulnerability; if anything
interferes with development during this time period, effects can be devastating.
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The fetal period lasts from 2 months to birth. During the early parts of this
stage, the muscles and bones begin to form. The body continues to grow
and function, with sex organs developing in the 3rd month and brain cells
multiplying during the final 3 months.
A developing baby and its mother are linked through the placenta, and a
mother’s behaviors can affect the baby dramatically.
Somewhere between 22 and 26 weeks, the age of viability is reached – when
the baby could survive if born prematurely. At 22 or 23 weeks, chances for
survival are slim, but by 26-28 weeks chances improve to a survival rate of
about 85%.
Severe maternal malnutrition is linked to increased risk of birth complications
and neurological problems in the newborn.
Research links maternal malnutrition to vulnerability, schizophrenia, and other
psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood.
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Maternal drug use can significantly impact a developing baby, even if the drugs are
legal, like alcohol and cigarettes. Many drugs, both prescription and recreational, are
linked to birth defects. Problems can even be caused by some over the counter drugs.
Motor development refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for
physical activities.
Fetal alcohol syndrome, one of the leading causes of mental retardation, is a
collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use
during pregnancy.
Current studies suggest that even normal social drinking can have enduring negative
effects on children, including deficits in IQ, reaction time, motor skills, attention span,
and math skills, as well as impulsive, antisocial, and delinquent behavior.
A basic number of principles are apparent in motor development. The cephalocaudal trend
describes the fact that children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before
the lower part.
The proximodistal trend describes the fact that children gain control over their torsos before
their extremities.
Motor development depends in part on physical growth, as well as on the process of maturation
(the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint), and the infant’s ongoing exploration of
the world.
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Attachment refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop
between infants and their caregivers.
Harry Harlow conducted a now-famous study in which he removed monkeys
from their mothers at birth and raised them in a laboratory with two different
kinds of substitute mothers – a cloth mother and a wire mother. Half the
monkeys were fed from a bottle attached to the cloth mother, and half were fed
by the wire mother.
Separation anxiety is emotional distress seen in many infants when they
are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
Harlow discovered that when frightened, the monkeys – regardless of which
mother fed them – sought comfort from the cloth mother, suggesting
that attachment.
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Harlow's work seriously undermined the behavioral view of the basis for
attachment. An alternative explanation of attachment was soon proposed by
John Bowlby, a prominent British psychoanalyst. Citing Harlow’s findings and
Konrad Lorenz’s research on imprinting, Bowlby asserted that attachment has
a biological basis.
One of Bowlby’s colleagues, Mary Ainsworth, eventually showed that
attachments vary in character. Ainsworth developed a method called the
strange situation procedure to assess the quality of attachment between
1-2-year-old infants and their caregivers. The strange situation procedure
puts infants through a series of short separations from and reunions with
their caregivers.
According to Bowlby, infants are programmed by evolution to exhibit endearing
behavior – such as smiling, cooing, and clinging – that triggers an affectionate,
protective response from adults.
As a result, Ainsworth concluded that attachment falls into three patterns:
secure, anxious-ambivalent, and avoidant.
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Ainsworth found that most infants have a secure attachment, playing and exploring comfortably when mom
is present, becoming visibly upset when she leaves, and calming quickly upon her return.
At around 10 to 13 months of age, most children begin to make sounds that
correspond to words, after which their vocabulary grows slowly over the next
few months.
Some babies, however, show anxiety even when mom is near and protest excessively when she leaves, but
are not particularly comforted when she returns (anxious-ambivalent attachment). Finally, some babies
sought little contact with their mothers and were not distressed when she left, a pattern Ainsworth labeled
avoidant attachment.
Correlational evidence suggests that babies with secure attachment tend to show favorable traits as they
develop through childhood, such as resilience, self-reliance, curiosity, and leadership.
Fast mapping is the process by which children map a word onto an underlying
structure after only one exposure – contributing to the rapid growth in
vocabulary around 18 months.
Secure attachment appears to be the most common type of attachment around the world, though variations
in patterns exist.
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Children begin to combine words into sentences near the end of their second
year. Telegraphic speech consists mainly of content words; articles,
prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted.
Erik Erikson, in the 1960s, proposed a stage theory of personality development
based on stages. Stage theories assume that individuals must progress
through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the
previous one. They also assume that progress through the stages is strongly
related to age, and that development is marked by major discontinuities that
bring about dramatic changes in behavior.
By the end of their third year, most children can express complex ideas such
as the plural or the past tense, although still with mistakes, such as
overregularization – when grammatical rules are generalized to irregular
cases where they do not apply.
Erikson theorized that there are eight stages, spanning the lifespan, in
personality development. He held that there is a specific psychosocial crisis
during each stage, the outcome of which determines the balance between
opposing polarities in personality.
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In stage 1, trust vs. mistrust, the infant in its first year of life must depend solely on its caregiver, which should
lead to a trusting view of the world.
[click to view next stage]
Jean Piaget made a landmark contribution to psychology’s understanding
of cognitive development, asserting that interaction with the environment and
maturation gradually alter the way children think. This progression in thinking
occurs through the complementary processes of assimilation (interpreting new
experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them)
and accommodation (changing existing mental structures to explain
new experiences).
In stage 2, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, the child begins to take personality responsibility and should
acquire a sense of self sufficiency.
[click to view next stage]
In stage 3, initiative vs. guilt, children should learn to get along with family members, leading to
self confidence.
[click to view next stage]
In stage 4, industry vs. inferiority, children must function socially outside of the bounds of their family, from
which a sense of competence should evolve.
Piaget proposed that children’s thought processes go through a series of four
major stages.
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In the sensorimotor stage, a child progressively develops object permanence, or the recognition that objects continue to exist
even when they are no longer visible.
[click to view next stage]
This video shows children at Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.
In the preoperational stage, children engage in symbolic thought, with characteristic flaws in their reasoning such as centration,
the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, and egocentrism, the limited ability to share another’s viewpoint. This
results in animism, the belief that all things are living, just like oneself.
[click to view next stage]
The concrete operational stage is characterized by the ability to perform operations with symbolic thought such as reversing or
mentally undoing an action. Children in the concrete operational stage are able to focus on more than one feature of a problem
simultaneously, a process called decentration. These new cognitive skills lead to conservation, or recognizing that amount of a
substance does not change just because appearance is changed.
[click to view next stage]
The formal operational period is marked by the ability to apply operations to abstract concepts such as justice, love, and free will.
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This video shows children at Piaget’s concrete operational stage.
Lawrence Kohlberg devised a stage theory of moral development based on
subjects’ responses to presented moral dilemmas.
Kohlberg was interested in a person’s reasoning, not necessarily their answer.
He theorized that people progress through a series of three levels of moral
development, each of which can be broken into 2 sublevels.
Each stage represents a different way of thinking about right and wrong.
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Younger children at the preconventional level think in terms of external
authority – acts are considered wrong or right based on whether or not they
are punished for them.
This video explains moral development, and shows children’s responses to
moral dilemmas.
Older children who have reached the conventional level of moral reasoning
see rules as necessary for maintaining social order.
Adolescence represents the move to the postconventional level of moral
reasoning, where acts are individually judged by a personal code of ethics.
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Pubescence is the term used to describe the two-year span preceding puberty
during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place.
Puberty is the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, marking the
beginning of adolescence. It is during puberty that the primary sex characteristics,
the structures necessary for reproduction, develop fully.
During this period, children grow taller and heavier and develop secondary sex
characteristics, physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but
that are not essential for reproduction.
In females, the onset of puberty is signaled by menarche – the fist occurrence of
menstruation. In males, it is signaled by sperm production.
At this time, males begin to show acne, facial and body hair, voice change, muscle
development, and ability to ejaculate.
Females also develop acne, as well as body hair, breast development, rounded
contours, enlargement of the uterus, clitoris, and labia, as well as menstruation.
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In recent years, the increasing availability of MRI scans has allowed
researchers to study the developing adolescent brain.
According to Erikson, the key challenge of adolescence is to form a clear
sense of identity.
The “white matter” increases, reflecting increasing myelinization.
At the same time, there is evidence of increased synaptic pruning.
These changes are thought to reflect maturation in the prefrontal cortex.
It appears that the prefrontal cortex is the last area of the brain to mature
fully. Some researchers have suggested that this is connected with the
increase in risky behaviors during adolescence.
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James Marcia asserts that the presence or absence of crisis and commitment during the identity
formation stage can combine in various ways to produce four different identity statuses.
According to Erikson, adulthood involves three stages:
Foreclosure is a premature commitment to a role prescribed by one’s parents.
Intimacy vs. isolation is the concern with the ability to share intimacy with
others, and should lead to empathy and openness.
A moratorium involves delaying commitment and engaging in experimentation with
different roles.
Identity diffusion is a state of lack of direction and apathy, where a person does not confront the
challenge and commit to an ideology.
Identity achievement involves arriving at a sense of self and direction after some consideration
of alternative possibilities.
Generativity vs. self-absorption involves concern for future generations,
resulting in unselfish guidance to younger people.
Integrity vs. despair involves overcoming the tendency to dwell on mistakes
of the past, as well as the imminent presence of death.
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Many landmarks in adult development involve transitions in family relationships: marriage,
parenthood, parent adolescent relations, and the empty nest syndrome.
In this video, couples express their reasons for remaining child-free.
Young adults are becoming increasingly postponing marriage, which may be a reflection on
career opportunities for women, increased educational requirements for work, and increased
emphasis on personal autonomy.
Studies of marriage and marital satisfaction indicate that when spouses have differing role
expectations, adjustment to marriage is more difficult. Research also shows highest rates of
marital satisfaction at the beginning and end of the family cycle.
Research shows that adjustment to parenthood proceeds more smoothly if unrealistic
expectations are not held.
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Age related physical changes include changes in appearance, neuron loss, sensory loss, and
hormonal changes. Research indicates that menopause is not as problematic as once thought.
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Cognitive functioning research indicates that general mental ability remains fairly stable, with
small declines in IQ after age 60. Fluid intelligence is more likely to decline with age, while
crystallized intelligence remains stable or increases.
Mental speed declines in late adulthood, and memory losses have been reported in many
studies. These are moderate and variable.
This video shows declining mental acuity in aging adults, as well as measures taken to prevent
the decline.
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