American History Chapter 19-3

American History
Chapter 19-3
The Harding &
Coolidge Presidencies
Warren G. Harding
• Election of 1920: Rep. Harding v. Dem. James Cox.
– Both from Ohio.
– Harding ran on a vision of, “A return to normalcy.”
– Harding won easily.
• President Harding believed that gov’t. should do
very little in terms of regulating business.
• Passed the Fordney-McCumber Tariff:
– An import tax on foreign grown farm produce.
– Caused Americans to buy less foreign crops.
– Hampered the efforts of Europeans in paying their war
Government Scandal
• Teapot Dome Scandal: Involved the Secretary of the
Interior Albert Fall.
– Fall accepted bribes from oil companies to allow them to
drill wells on federal land in Wyoming.
Sentenced to 1 yr. in
prison & a $100,000 fine.
Calvin Coolidge
• President Harding died Aug. 2, 1923 of a heart attack.
– Calvin Coolidge, of MA. became president.
• Got rid of corrupt officials.
• President Coolidge also favored strong business & a
limited government.
– Business, he believed, would fuel America’s growth.
– Coolidge was elected president in 1924.
Lingering Effects of WWI
• Europe was unable to pay war debts.
• Germany couldn’t pay reparations – payments for
war damages.
• The U.S. became a banker to European countries:
– Lent Germany $ to pay reparations.
– Allowed other European countries to pay debts to the U.S.
Military Concerns
• An arms race developed in which countries compete
to have the strongest militaries .
• Washington Naval Conference: 1921 meeting of the
world’s naval powers.
– Agreed to scale down their navies.
– Agreed to avoid competition for control of China.
• U.S. Brigadier General Billy Mitchell: Argued
before Congress that the U.S. needed to build
up air power.
U.S. Airforce 1920s
General Mitchell
Attempt at World Peace
• Kellogg-Briand Pact: More than 60 nations agreed to
condemn the use of war as a solution to
international controversy.
Group Hug