369 AP US HISTORY AMERICA: PAST AND PRESENT EIGHTH EDITION CHAPTER 19: TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY 1867-1890 LEARNING TARGETS 1. Trace the journeys of the new immigrants from their places of origin to America, and explain their adaptation to urban stresses and their effect on American cities 2. Specify the role of skyscrapers, suburbs and tenements in the rise of the city. 3. Identify and describe the major problems of American central cities in the Victorian era 4. Explain and evaluate the operation of the early political “machines.” 5. Describe the most common form of food, housing and medical care in the 1877 6. Identify and describe the principal moral values and issues of Victorian America 7. Describe the most popular forms of pastimes and entertainments in Victorian America 8. Delineate the changing roles of both women and the family in America from 1877-1900 9. Describe the changes taking place in public education between 1877 & 1890 10. Describe the major changes taking place in American higher education, 1877-1900 11. Compare and contrast the educational and civil rights policies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois 12. Describe the principal tenets of Social Darwinism and the opposing reform theory, including some of the specific arguments of major proponents of each view. 13. Trace the rise of professional social workers in the settlement houses and the depression of 1893. TERMS/PEOPLE TO KNOW Tammany Hall (1850s to 1930s) William Tweed / Tweed ring / Tammany Hall (1860s-1871) Mugwumps (1880) Women’s Christian temperance Union (1874) Comstock Law (1873) New Woman (1880s) Morrill Land Grant (1862) Booker T. Washington / Tuskegee Institute / Atlanta Compromise (1881) W.E.B. DuBois / ”Talented Tenth” (1905) Social Darwinism / Herbert Spencer (1876) William Graham Sumner (1883) Henry George Progress and Poverty (1879) Clarence Darrow (1885) Edward Bellamy Looking Backward (1887) Social Gospel (1886) Jane Addams (1889) CHAPTER 19 ID’S 1850’s-1930’s Tammany Hall Pgs. 548-549 As cities grew, the number of services that the city government had to supply grew as well. New streets had to be built. Sanitation had to be improved. City government became hopelessly entangled and confused. To solve this problem, part machines made their appearance and dominated city government. The party machines were led by bosses. One of the most prominent party machines was Tammany Hall which dominated New York City politics from the 1850’s to the 1930’s. Tammany Hall was started by “Honest” John Kelly, Richard Crocker, and Charles F. Murphy. Tammany Hall stayed in power so long because, like other party machines and their bosses because it paid attention to the needs of the least privileged voters. They also used immigrants. 1860’s-1872 William Tweed/Tweed Ring Pgs. 548-49 One of the most famous bosses of the party machines was William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall from the 1860’s to 1872. Tweed rose to the top of Tammany Hall quickly. He held several political offices from city alderman to Congressman. Tweed led the Tweed Ring of New York that robbed the city of millions of dollars. When he became the head of Tammany Hall, he built the New York County Courthouse that became his masterpiece. 1880 Mugwumps Pg. 552 During the late 1800’s, there was somewhat of a religious revival as people found they had more leisure time due to new inventions. This led to a spirit of reform. Since slavery was no longer an issue, people looked at other problems. One group called the Mugwumps tries to fix corruption in the government. It was composed of the educated upper class. Women’s Christian Temperance Union Pg. 552 With the reform movement, there was another push for temperance. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union pushed for total abstinence from alcohol. They hoped that it would end drunkenness and all social evils. It became a huge organization by 1898 with 10,000 branches and over 500,000 members. 1874 1873 Comstock Law Pg. 552 In New York City, Anthony Comstock organized the Society for the Suppression of Vice which worked for increased public morality. The society got congress to pass the Comstock Law in 1873. The law prohibited the mailing or transporting of obscene or vulgar articles. The law wasn’t successful. 1880’s New Woman Pgs. 554-555 During the late 1800’s, woman achieved new recognition in the work force. Women were starting to work in factories, telephone exchanges, and business offices. Also, more women were starting to work in general. The idea of “New Woman” was that a woman was the highest good. They were pure, innocent, and incapable of wrongdoing. 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act Pg. 557 The Morrill Land Grant Act gave large grants of land to the states so that they could create universities to teach agriculture and the mechanical arts. 1881 Booker T. Washington/Tuskegee Institute/Atlanta Compromise Pgs. 558-59 Although, higher education increased during this time period, blacks were still excluded from most colleges. To alleviate this, Booker T. Washington started the Tuskegee Institute that became one of the best industrial and agricultural schools in the country. Washington founded Tuskegee because of this philosophy that blacks should become economically equal to whites before they demanded more social and political equality. He stated these ideas most expressively in Atlanta so his philosophy is called the Atlanta Compromise. W.E.B. DuBois / “Talented Tenth” Pgs. 559 DuBois was the first black man to graduate from Harvard. He was brilliant sociologist and civil rights leader. Contrary to Washington, DuBois felt that blacks needed to demand more social and political rights before economic because otherwise they would just become the labor force of white managers. DuBois felt that the blacks should educate their talented tenth to lead them and gain them more rights. 1905 1876 Social Darwinism/Herbert Spencer Pgs. 560 After Darwin came up with his theory of evolution, that man had developed into the creature he was over millions of years, people started to apply his theory to society and life in general. Herbert Spencer, an English social philosopher, came up with Social Darwinism. He said that society adapted to the environment. Spencer coined the phrase “survival of the fittest” and said that in thousands of years, society would evolve and become a better place. He thought that reform was useless because the poor were the least fit, and that they were doomed to die out. Helping them was interfering with evolution. Social Darwinism didn’t gain a widespread following, but it did raise some questions. 1883 William Graham Sumner Pg. 560 William Graham Sumner was one of the most influential Social Darwinists in the U.S. He wrote What Social Classes Owe to Each Other and “The Absurd Effort to Make the World Over.” In each of these two writings he put down reform and said that it interfered with evolution. 1879 Henry George-Process and Poverty Pg. 560 Henry George was a poor, self-educated economist who studied American life from San Francisco. He held odd jobs his whole life and came to the conclusion that society was seriously flawed. In his book, Progress and Poverty, George presented a solution to end poverty. He said that land was the basis of wealth. If there were a single tax imposed on land, the money could be used to help the poor, and everything would be okay. 1885 Clarence Darrow Pgs. 560-62 Clarence Darrow was a lawyer in Ashtaburton, Ohio. He read George’s work and began to think about it. He came to the conclusion that criminals were made and not born. He went against Social Darwinism. He said that poverty bred criminals, and if poverty were ended, crime would end. 1887 Edward Bellamy-Looking Backward Pg. 561-62 Edward Bellamy was a lawyer from Massachusetts who somewhat agreed with Darrow and pushed for reform. His book, Looking Backward, was about a person of 1887 who falls asleep and wakes up in a utopian, socialist 2000. The society of 2000 has flaws, but readers of Looking Backward started a new socialist movement in the U.S. 1886 Social Gospel Pg. 562 With the reform movement going on, religious organizations got involved and some started setting up missions in the city slums. Along with these, a new religious philosophy known as Social Gospel emerged. Social Gospel looked at society and the individual rather they just the individual. Sermons in these churches called adults to action to help the poor, and adults met before and after services to discuss social problems. Children missed the sermon, were organized by age groups, and did other activities in the church. The most famous Social Gospel leader was Washington Gladden who worked his whole life for social salvation. 1889 Jane Addams Pgs. 52-63 One of the arms of the reform movement was the building of settlement houses. Settlement houses were places that were there in order to bring a sense of community to the city and the poor. One of the most famous settlement houses was Hull House in Chicago. Jane Addams started Hull House because she wanted to share the lives of the poor, and help end poverty. Education was stressed at Hull House and there were lectures in every subject imaginable as well as classes that gave college credit. Addams studied the area around Hull House and taught the immigrants living there English language and American history. She also encouraged them to keep their ethnic identity.