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Are you bilingual?
Or even trilingual?
53
Expanding Circle
Outer Circle
Inner
Circle
UK, USA,
Oceania
320 – 380
million
India, the Philippines,
Singapore
150 – 300
China, Japan, Germany
100 – 1000 million
(Kachru 1989)
Current spread of English
(topics)
• International organizations
85% make some official use of English
• Motion pictures
in the mid 1990s, the US controlled
about 85% of the world film market
• Popular music
99% of the pop groups listed in the
Penguin Encyclopaedia of Popular
music work entirely in English
(Crystal 1997, 2003; Graddol 1997)
Current spread of English
 International travel
the US leads in tourism,
earning and spending,
international airports around the world have
essential information in English
 Publications
more books are published in
English than in any other language
(Crystal 1997, 2003; Graddol 1997)
Current spread of English (MM)
• Communications
80% of the world’s electronically
stored information is in English,
84% of Internet servers are English-medium
• Education
English plays a significant role in
higher education, accessing information
in a great variety of fields is dependent
upon having reading ability in English
(Crystal 1997, 2003; Graddol 1997)
In the acquisition of an
international language:
• learners do not need to internalize
native speakers’ cultural norms
• international language becomes
‘denationalised’
• the educational goal of learning is to
enable learners to communicate their
ideas and culture to others
(Smith 1976)
arts
customs
geography
race
clothing
food
language
films
music
religion
values
beliefs
Problems with traditional role
of culture in EIL teaching
1. Which country should provide the basis for
cultural content?
2. How will merely knowing about a culture help
learners’ cross cultural encounters?
Kramsch’s goals for culture in
language teaching
1. Establishing a ‘sphere of interculturality’
2. Teaching culture as difference
(from McKay 2002)
Cultural information in language
materials
1. source culture materials – learner’s own culture
2. target culture materials – a country where English
is spoken
3. international target culture materials – a variety of
cultures in English and non-English speaking
countries.
(Cortazzi and Jin 1999)
Learner’s
own
culture
Britain:
A country
where
English is
spoken
A variety of
cultures
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ml3cKrUU0ME
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMWRKm_eQSQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsZY6oi5GQs
&feature=channel&list=UL
• ANIMALS:
• Blowie, Chook, Joey, Jumbuck, Mozzie,
Roo, Saltie
• PEOPLE
• Greenie, Mate, Milko, Pom /pommy,
Sheila, Surfies, Swaggie, Swagman,
• EXPRESSIONS/PLACES:
• Fair dinkum, G'Day, Reckon! Ace! Arvo,
Outback, Oz, Uni, Billabong, Bush,
Cranky
South African Sporting Idioms
• Match up the idiom to the sport:
CRICKET
TENNIS
SAILING
GOLF
FOOTBALL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
That’s not cricket!
Play it safe.
That’s well below par.
Hit for a six!
Put the ball in your court.
In the rough.
Let the ball do the work.
We’re facing a sticky wicket.
Kick off.
Well, I’m stumped!
Learn the ropes.
He was bowled over.
Well, that took the wind out of my sails.
The word 'glamour' originates from ancient Welsh.
Glamour was a paint applied to the face and body
before going to battle! When we say someone has her
'war paint' on, we really mean it!
What word describes these
Welsh ladies? Glamorous
Welsh - English
•Welsh
• afon
•bardd
•Neidr
•pen gwyn
•bwthyn
•Bwa
•ywen
•cor, ci
•derwydd
•Adder
•Avon
•Bard
•Booth
•Bow
•Corgi
•Druid
•Penguin
•Yew
Scottish dialect / Gaelic
Match the words to the pictures:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
aye
bairn - child
ben
biggin
brig
burn
dram
glen
kirk
lassie
loch
wee
dram
lassie
bairn
loch
biggin
kirk
ben
aye
glen
burn
brig
How do
you say...
Csárdás
Paprika
Autóbusz
Gulyás
Golyóstoll
Kuvasz
Vizsla
Komondor
Puli
Huszár
STORIES
Thank you for…
[email protected]
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