states of matter

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States of Matter
1. Develop a rule for each category.
This rule should explain why each item is in
that category. Hint: figure out what all
items in a category have in common.
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3
-Gasoline
- Mercury
- Rubbing Alcohol
- Tap Water
- Kerosene
-Neon
- Oxygen
- Carbon
Monoxide
-Carbon Dioxide
- Nitrogen
- Helium
-Silver
- Sodium Chloride
(salt)
- Gold
- Wood
- Aluminum
Testers
2. Write down each of the following and
decide which category they would be in
based on your rule.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bottled perfume
Marble
Coffee
Air
Concrete
Hydrogen
STATES OF MATTER
• Matter can be classified into
groups based on the shape and
volume of their moving particles
– SOLID
– LIQUID
– GAS
– PLASMA
• SOLID - state of matter
when materials have
definite shape and
definite volume
– Atoms are packed tightly
together
–Atoms are arranged neatly,
orderly
–Atoms vibrate around the same
location
Examples of Solids are
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ice
Frog
Cheese
Bricks
Wood
Popcscle
• Liquid- state of matter
when materials have
definite volume and
indefinite shape
– Liquid takes the same shape as its
container
– Particles FLOW past one another easily
– Atoms are close, but not tight
– Atoms are randomly arranged
Examples of Liquids are
•
•
•
•
•
•
Orange Juice
Water
Soft drinks
Milk
Rubbing Alcohol
Vinegar
• Gas – state of matter
when materials have
indefinite shape AND
indefinite volume
– Take shape and volume of container
–Atoms spread to fit container
–Atoms move rapidly, constantly
–Atoms randomly arranged with large
spaces between them
Examples of Gases are
•
•
•
•
•
•
Steam
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Smog
Tear Gas
Helium
• Plasma – state of matter made up
of small electrically charged
particles
– Found where there is
high temperature and
pressure
– Rare to find on Earth
– Ex, lightning
– Used in fluorescent light
bulbs and neon lights
MATTER
• Kinetic Energy (KE) - energy
of motion
• Higher KE = Higher Temperature
–All matter is made of millions of
tiny particles
– these particles are constantly
moving, and have KE
Order the states of matter from
lowest KE to highest KE
- Solid
- Liquid
- Gas
- Plasma
SHAPE
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
PLASMA
VOLUME
DRAW A
DIAGRAM of
the molecules
GIVE AN
EXAMPLE
Physical Changes- physical
properties change but the
substance is still the same
Phase Change reversible physical
change from one state to
another
– heat energy is absorbed or
released
Energy determines the state!
Add or Subtract Energy. . .
When energy is added, particles move faster!
When energy is taken away, particles move slower!
• Melting – changing from solid
to liquid
– When a solid gains heat
–Temperature and energy
INCREASE
• Freezing – changing from
liquid to solid
– When a liquid loses heat
–Baked cookies are actually
FROZEN because they are solid.
–Freezing does not always mean
COLD.
–Freezing point and melting point
are the same temperature
• Evaporation – changing from a
liquid to a gas
–Only liquid touching air
evaporates
–Temperature is below boiling
point
–Water VAPOR or STEAM = gas
– More area = faster evaporation
• Vaporization (boiling) – Change
of liquid to a gas- when vapor
pressure is the same as
atmospheric pressure and bubbling
occurs
– Vapor pressure - pressure created
by moving gas particles bumping
into each other or the container
– Atmospheric pressure – pressure
outside the container
• Condensation – change from
gas to liquid
–Water vapor particles hit a cool
surface, lose heat, and change
into water
• Sublimation- change from
solid to gas
–NO LIQUID IN BETWEEN
–Dry ice
Red = heating
Blue = cooling
Thermal Expansion and
Contraction
• Tendency of matter to expand or contract as
a result of changes in temperature.
• Typically: when heat is added, matter
expands and when heat is removed matter
contracts.
• Expand: Get larger
• Contract: Get smaller
Starter 11/7
• Determine what characteristics the “Yes”
examples share. Write a list.
YES
NO
-Gasoline burns in a car
engine
-An iron nail rusts
-A copper roof turns green
-Food is digested
-Photosynthesis occurs in
a plant
-A silver spoon turns
black
-Wax on a candle melts
-Ice melts in a cold drink
-Frost forms on a window
-Water boils in a kettle
-Glass shatters
-Alcohol and water mix
together
-Oil and water do not mix
together
Part 2
• Write down the following list and decide
whether they are “Yes” or “No”
-
Sugar is used by the body to produce energy
Snow changes to water vapor
Sugar dissolves in water
Salt water evaporates to dryness
Wood burns in a campfire
“Crazy Glue” hardens when exposed to air
After reading “Was it a Chemical
Change”
• Flip the paper over and answer these
questions:
1. Summarize the article in 3 or more sentences
2. Create a list of the indicators (how you know) a
chemical change occurred
3. What do you think catalysts are? Write where
you got that information (the actual words)
4. Explain the difference between a chemical and
physical change. How can you separate
substances that have been chemically changed?
Starter 11/5
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