Geologist A scientist who studies the Earth as well as the processes and history that have shaped it. Crust The outermost solid shell of Earth or other rocky planet. Mantle The mantle is a layer between the crust and the outer core. It is mainly solid but behaves like a liquid. Inner core The Inner Core is the final layer of the Earth. It is a solid ball made of metal. Outer Core It is a magma like liquid layer that surrounds the Inner Core and creates Earth's magnetic field. It is made of iron and nickel. Ex. Ingredients in a cake composition the way in which a whole or mixture is made up.