P3/4 ISN as of 1/26

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What do I and my classmates already
know re: cells? 11/2/15
 Animal cells are different from plant
cells
 Cells are alive, so they can die
 Many different types of cells
 All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
 Animal cells are not connected to each
other like plant cells
 Cells are basic building block of life
 Plant cells are a box
 Animal cells are circular; any shape but
a box
 Can only see cells through a
microscope
 Need cells in order to be living
 Cells can reproduce
 Plant cells have a cell wall
 Cells make tissues, tissues make organs
 Plant cells are tougher than animal
cells…more rigid/studier
 Come in 1000’s of shapes & sizes
 All life is made of cells
 500 quadrillion chem. rxns in a cell
every second
 Over 100 trillion cells in human
body…more cells in one human that
there are total humans on Earth
 10,000 cells fit on the head of pin
What is the Cell Theory and Hx of
microbiology? 11/4/15
CELL THOERY
 Cell Theory= explanation of how cells &
life are related
 Cell Theory states: all living things are
composed of cells, cells are the basic
unit of structure & fxn-smallest unit of
life, cells come from other cells
 Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow made the
Cell Theory in mid-1800’s
Hx OF MICROBIOLOGY
 microbiology= study of microscopic
(teeny tiny) living things…
“micro”=teeny tiny… “bio”= life…
“ology”=study of
 1590 invention of microscope made
seeing cells possible…Zacharias
Janssen
 Schleiden was a botanist
 Robert Hooke coined the term “cell” in
1660’s while looking at cork
 Mid-1800’s Robert Brown discovered
nucleus
 Leeuwenhoek was 1st to see unicellular
organisms (bacteria)…looking @ spit &
teeth scrapings
What are the ingredients of cells? 11/13/15
 Cells are made of…
-DNA & RNA (nucleic acids)=1.5 % wgt
-lipids (fats)=1% wgt
-proteins=5% wgt
-carbohydrates (sugars)=2.5% wgt
-H2O=90% of wgt
What is the basic structure of eukaryotic
cells? 11/16/15
 organelle= “organ” of the cell; parts &
pieces inside a cell that do the cell’s body
fxns.
(taped in chart of 12 cell organelles)
 plants cells are boxy shaped so they can
stack for height…animal cells are
anything but boxy shaped
 cells only have the organelles they
need to do their job
--EX: plant root cells don’t have
chloroplasts b/c they don’t need them
(tape in)
How does the structure of plant and
animal cells compare? 12/4/15
plant cell
only
cell wall
chloroplasts
(1: organelle
difference)
boxy shaped
(2: shape)
1 BIG vacuole
(3: vacuole
difference)
BOTH
ribosomes
vacuole
nucleus
ER
cell membrane
cytoplasm
mitochondria
Golgi body
animal cell
only
lysosomes
cytoskeleton
every shape but a box
many small vacuoles
How does the cell membrane work?
1/4/16
 cell membrane is selectively
permeable= tiny holes to control what
comes in and out of the cell; small
molecules pass through, lrg ones don’t
 diffusion= molecules moving across the
cell membrane from high to low
concentration until reach
equilibrium=even/balanced
 molecules move b/c they bump off [email protected]
other
 osmosis= diffusion of H2O
 many cellular fxns depend on osmosis
(diagram of diffusion/osmosis)
 isotonic= even amt of H2O inside and
outside of the cell…ideal state of
equilibrium/homeostasis
 hypotonic= H2O rushes into the cell b/c
not a lot of it in the cell…animal cells
explode  but plant cells swell to
rigidity  (high H2O concentration so
swollen, does NOT need H2O)
 hypertonic=H2O rushes out of the cell
b/c not a lot of it outside of the
cell…plants wilt, animals get
thirsty/dehydrated…(low H2O
concentration so needs H2O)
What is the difference between passive and
active transport across the cell membrane?
1/12/16
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
-cell uses energy to get stuff
across the cell membrane
-cell DOES NOT use energy to
get stuff across membrane
-uses transport proteins as a
“bridge/doorway” to get big
molecules across the
membrane
-engulfing is another way cell’s
get big stuff inside
-like going uphill
Both ways
things pass
through the
cell
membrane
-diffusion & osmosis
-like going downhill
What is the structure and fxn of DNA found in
the nucleus? 1/13/16
(tape-in highlighted for information)
 DNA codes for proteins that determine
what makes me look like
me=phenotype….makes a pepper tree, a
pepper tree, etc.
 Shape/structure discovered by Watson
& Crick in 1953
 The color of all DNA is white
What is photosynthesis? 1/22/16
 Photosynthesis= the process of an plant
autotrophic cell getting energy from
sunlight to make food…converting
radiant energy into chemical energy
that organisms can use…use sunlight
energy to convert CO2 and H2O into O2
and sugar
 Ingredients for photosynthesis:
What is required and how does the plant
get it?
1) sunlight (photons) captured in the
chloroplasts by chlorophyll= green
chemical “solar panel”
2) CO2 (carbon dioxide) from the
atmosphere enters through leaf stomata=
small pores on the underside of leaf and
into the cell by diffusion
3) H2O (water) from the soil is sucked up
by the roots through osmosis
 The process of photosynthesis: a
WICKED chemical rxn by the
chloroplast using the sun’s energy to
rip apart H2O & CO2 molecules in to C,
H, O atoms to make
 Products of photosynthesis:
1) Oxygen (O2)—released into the air
through the stomata
2) Sugar (glucose: C6H12O6)—as energy for
life’s functions or stores it as starch
(plant fat)
 Photosynthesis equation:
6CO2+6H20+sunlight photons
yields
C6H12O6+6O2
“six carbon dioxide molecules plus six
water molecules + sunlight photons yields
one glucose molecule plus six oxygen
molecules”
Why do the leaves of some trees change
color in autumn? 2/3/16
 Carotenoids= orange/yellow color of
leaves…always there!
 Conifers have waxy coat to protect from
freezing, so they DON’T loose
leaves…pines!
 Days get shorter, so trees stop making
chlorophyll b/c there is not as much
sun as there used to be…no longer able
to do effective photosynthesis
 Deciduous trees= go dormant/
“hibernate” by losing leaves
 Anthocyanins=red pigment in leaves
made @ end of summer
What is cellular respiration? 2/4/16
 Cellular respiration= cells breaking
down food to release energy…in the
mitochondria
 ALL living organisms do CR
 Ingredients of CR:
1) Glucose/sugar (C6H12O6)…animals eat
food to get it; plants do
photosynthesis to get it
2) Oxygen…from the atmosphere;
animals inhale, plants through the
stomata
 Process of CR: a WICKED chemical rxn
by mitochondria…glucose is ripped
apart to release energy
 Products of CR:
1) Carbon dioxide (CO2)…released
through plant stomata; animals exhale
2) Water (H2O)…released during
exhalation in animals & through
stomata in plants
3) ENERGY in the form of ATP…used for
living
 Cellular Respiration equation:
C6H12O6+6O2
6H2O+6CO2+energy (ATP)
One glucose molecule plus six oxygen
molecules yields six water molecule plus 6
carbon dioxide molecule plus energy as
ATP (38).
How are photosynthesis and cellular
respiration related? 2/16/16
 Opposite reactions!
 Products on one are the ingredients of
the other
 Need [email protected] other to exist: w/o
photosynthesis there is no CR and vice
versa
 Work together to keep O2 and CO2 in
balance in the atmo.
What is fermentation? 2/23/16
 fermentation= cells releasing energy
w/o O2…less energy released than CRNOT as efficient as CR
 2 types of fermentation:
1) alcoholic fermentation= done by
yeast…puts alcohol & bubbles in beer
& wine and makes bread rise
C6H12O6+zymase
2 C2H5OH+2 CO2
(alcohol)
2) lactic acid fermentation= done by
some bacteria & muscle cells…makes
muscles sore & weak after heavy
exercise (muscles) and makes yogurt
& sauerkraut (bacteria)
C6H12O6
2 CH3CHOHCOOH
(lactic acid)
What is the cell cycle…AKA mitosis?
2/24/16
 cell cycle= sequence of growing &
dividing in cells
 3 stages to the cell cycle:
1) Interphase: cell grows, replicates
DNA & prepares to divide into two
“daughter cells”
--DNA replicates by untwisting,
“unzipping” and “zipping” in a new
½ to create two, identical copies
--about 90% of the total time
(diagram)
2) Mitosis= “make two, identical
nuclei” out of one nucleus in 4
stages/phases
*Prophase= DNA “packs together” in
condensed chromosomes
*metaphase= DNA lines up in the
“middle” & nuclear membrane
dissolves
*anaphase= DNA pairs pulled
“apart/away from [email protected] other” by
spindle fibers (thread thingies)
*telophase= “two, identical, nuclei”
in ONE, stretched out cell
--about 8% of the total time
3) Cytokinesis= cytoplasm divides into
two new, identical cells…cytoplasm’s
final split
--“complete split”, “cut in ½”
--cell membrane pinches in to cut in
½ in animal cells
--cell plate forms in plant cells to cut
in ½
--about 2% of the total time
What is differentiation? 3/7/16 Fxn #4
 Cellular differentiation= the process of
cells changing structure & fxn to
become specialized in an organism…
“has found a career and will stay there
until death”
 Happens when sections of DNA are
turned OFF
 Stem cell= undifferentiated cell…like
Play Doh that can be shaped into
anything… “doesn’t know what it wants
to be when it grows up b/c can be
anything the organism needs”
 Regeneration= ability to grow new body
parts b/c of stem cells @ to point of
injury EX: lizard tails, starfish arms,
pothos/creeping charlie roots
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