Engineering Education and the Challenges of the 21st Century

advertisement
Engineering Education
and the
Challenges of the 21st Century
Charles M. Vest
President, National Academy of Engineering
Samuel Ginn Lecture in Engineering
Auburn University
September 22, 2009
Engineering Education and
Challenges
1. 21st century Engineering and Science
2. Globalization
3. Grand Challenges
4. Innovation
5. Engineering Education
21st Century
Engineering and Science
New Frontiers
Interdisciplinary
Interrelated
Use-Inspired
Frontiers
of Technology
Frontiers of Technology
Tiny Systems
Nano
Bio
Info
Macro Systems
Energy
Environment
Health Care
Manufacturing
Communications
Logistics
Frontiers of Technology
Tiny Systems
Macro Systems
Energy
Natural Science
Nano
Environment
Bio
Health Care
Info
Manufacturing
Communications
Social Science
Logistics
The Payoff will come from
Bridging the Frontiers
TINY SYSTEMS
Bio
Info
Nano
Bio-based materials
Biomemetics
Personalized, Predictive
Medicine
Synthetic Biology
Biofuels
Etc.
MACRO SYSTEMS
Energy
Environment
Health Care
Manufacturing
Communications
Logistics …
Interdisciplinary
Genomic
Research
Biology
Genomic
Research
Biology
Combinatorial
Mathematics
Clinical Insight
Genomic
Research
Robotics
And
Automation
Microfabrication
Interdependent
SCIENCE
TECHNOLOGY
Imaging
Cell
Biology
Micro
Sensors
Brain
Research
Computation
Complex
Systems
Imaging
Cell
Biology
Micro
Sensors
Brain
Research
Computation
Complex
Systems
Increasingly
Use-Inspired
R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant”
Research is inspired by:
Consideration of use?
No
Yes
Quest for
Yes
Fundamental
Understanding?
No
Pure Basic
Research
(Bohr)
Pure Applied
Research
(Edison)
Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997
R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant”
Research is inspired by:
Consideration of use?
No
Yes
Quest for
Yes
Fundamental
Understanding?
No
Pure Basic
Research
(Bohr)
Use-inspired
Basic Research
(Pasteur)
Pure Applied
Research
(Edison)
Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997
R&D is increasingly performed in “Pasteur’s Quadrant”
Research is inspired by:
Consideration of use?
No
Yes
Quest for
Yes
Fundamental
Understanding?
No
Pure Basic
Research
(Bohr)
Use-inspired
Basic Research
(Pasteur)
Former
University
Presidents
(Vest)
Pure Applied
Research
(Edison)
Adapted from Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation, Donald E. Stokes 1997
Globalization
R&D
Higher Education
Movement and Integration
Globalization
of
R&D and Talent
New R&D Investments
R&D Expenditures and Share of World Total
Data for 2002
Source: Science and Engineering Indicators, NSF 2008
New Players
Where the Expertise is
Young Professional Workforce
(college grads up to 7 yr.
2500000
2000000
1500000
Engineers
Life Science
Finance/Acct.
1000000
500000
0
China
India
U.S.
Source: Competitiveness Index 2007, Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC
First Engineering Degrees
(China Rises.)
300
China
200
150
Japan
100
China
Japan
S. Korea
US
UK
Germany
US
50
0
19
83
19
84
19
85
19
86
19
87
19
88
19
89
19
90
19
91
19
92
19
93
19
94
19
95
19
96
19
97
19
98
19
99
20
00
20
01
20
02
thousands
250
Source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2006, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC
% UG Degrees in Science or Engineering
How do we compare with the Rest of the World?
25.0
20.0
15.0
Natural Sciences
Engineering
10.0
5.0
0.0
Asia
Europe
United States
Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008
% UG Degrees in Science or Engineering
What About the Rest of the World?
25.0
20.0
15.0
Natural Sciences
Engineering
10.0
A Problem
5.0
0.0
Asia
Europe
United States
Source: NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2008
Globalization
of
Higher Education
Research University
Globalization Phase I
Germany
Humboldt University
1800s
2000s!
Berkeley, Stanford,
Michigan, UC, …
1800s /1900s
USA
Johns Hopkins
1800s
MIT, Caltech,
RPI, …
1800s / 1900s
IITs India
1960’s
Acceleration
Asia
2000’s
Bologna
Europe
2010
Research University
Globalization Phase II
• Physical Presence in Other Countries
– Campuses
– Laboratories
• Strategic Alliances Between Universities
• Virtual Presence in Other Countries
– Distance Education
• Synchronous
• Asynchronous
– Open Content: The Emerging Meta-University
• Teaching Materials
• Scholarly Archives
• Telepresent Laboratories
Research University
Globalization Phase II
• Physical Presence in Other Countries
– Campuses
– Laboratories
• Strategic Alliances Between Universities
• Virtual Presence in Other Countries
– Distance Education
• Synchronous
• Asynchronous
– Open Content: The Emerging Meta-University
• Teaching Materials
• Scholarly Archives
• Telepresent Laboratories
MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)
• Concept: Make the basic teaching
materials for 1,900 MIT subjects
available on the Web to teachers and
learners everywhere free of charge.
• Publication -- Not Teaching per se.
• An adventure!
MIT OCW – Traffic by Region
18.0%
41.9%
4.9%
1.4%
19.6%
8.4%
4.4%
% web hits since 10/1/03
The Meta University
A Personal View
What we are observing is the early
emergence of a Meta University -- a
transcendent, accessible, empowering,
dynamic, communally-constructed
framework of open materials and
platforms on which much of higher
education worldwide can be constructed
or enhanced.
Movement and Integration
Then
Brain
Drain
Then
Brain
Drain
Now
Brain
Circulation
Then
Now
Brain
Drain
Brain
Circulation
Next
Brain
Integration
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
source: Prof. David Baker, University of Washington
MIT Center
for
Collective Intelligence
Core research question:
How can people and computer be connected
so that collectively they act more intelligently
than any person, group, or computer
has ever done before?
Grand Challenges
Grand Challenges for Engineering
• Proposed by a committee of amazingly
accomplished and innovative people.
• Extremely challenging and important.
• Deemed to be doable in the next few
decades.
Grand Challenges Committee
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bill Perry, chair
Sir Alec Broers
Farouk El-Baz
Wes Harris
Bernadine Healy
Daniel Hillis
Calestous Juma
Dean Kamen
Ray Kurzweil
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bob Langer
Jaime Lerner
Bindu Lohani
Jane Lubchenco
Mario Molina
Larry Page
Rob Socolow
Craig Venter
Jackie Ying
Engineering Grand Challenges
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Make Solar Energy
Economical
Manage the
Nitrogen Cycle
Advance Healthcare
Informatics
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Prevent Nuclear
Terror
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Advance Personalized
Learning
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Provide Energy
From Fusion
Provide Access
to Clean Water
Engineer Better
Medicines
Secure
Cyberspace
Engineer the
Tools of Scientific
Discovery
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Develop Carbon
Sequestration
Methods
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Restore and
Improve Urban
Infrastructure
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Reverse
Engineer the
Brain
Quic kT i me™ and a
dec om pres s or
are needed t o s ee thi s pi c ture.
Enhance
Virtual
Reality
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Engineering Grand Challenges
www.engineeringchallenges.org
Energy
Environment
Global Warming
Sustainability
Improve Medicine and
Healthcare Delivery
Reducing Vulnerability to
Human and Natural Threats
Expand and Enhance
Human Capability
And Joy
Innovation
New Systems
Drivers
New Systems for Innovation?
Life Sciences
and
Information Technology
21st century
Innovation
21st century
Innovation
Disruptive Technologies
For
Grand Challenges
Macro Systems
especially Energy
21st century
Innovation
21st century
Innovation
A new
Enabling Technology?
21st century
Innovation
Future of
Venture Capital?
Globalization of
R&D
Education
Workforce
21st century
Innovation
Life Sciences
and
Information Technology
Globalization of
R&D
Education
Workforce
Macro Systems
especially Energy
21st century
Innovation
A new
Enabling Technology?
Future of
Venture Capital?
Disruptive Technologies
For
Grand Challenges
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
Duderstadt / NAE
Brookings / Energy
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Aalto University
Olin College
Singapore
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Singularity
University
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
Wikipedia
[email protected]
IBM Innovation Jam
Social Networking
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
X Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Evolution of
current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
Virtual
Communities
New Universities
New Educational
Organizations
Drivers of Innovation
“We need to
getneed
backtotoget
making
“We
back stuff
to making stuff
based on real
engineering
not just not just
based
on real engineering
financial engineering.”
financial engineering.”
Thomas Friedman
Thomas Friedman
New York Times New York Times
Sept. 28, 2008 Sept. 28, 2008
“We need to
getneed
backtotoget
making
“We
back stuff
to making stuff
based on real
engineering
not just not just
based
on real engineering
financial engineering.”
financial engineering.”
Thomas Friedman
Thomas Friedman
New York Times New York Times
Sept. 28, 2008 Sept. 28, 2008
“… with more than 50,000 new jobs,
the renewable energy industry in Germany
is now second only to its auto industry.”
Thomas Friedman
New York Times
Sept. 18, 2009
Relentless Change
Grand Challenges
Distributed Intelligence
S&T Acceleration
Globalization
Internet Democracy
Life Sciences
and
Information Technology
Relentless Change
Grand Challenges
Distributed Intelligence
S&T Acceleration
Globalization
Internet Democracy
Globalization of
R&D
Education
Workforce
Macro Systems
especially Energy
21st century
Innovation
A new
Enabling Technology?
Future of
Venture Capital
Disruptive Technologies
For
Grand Challenges
?
Life Sciences
and
Information Technology
Relentless Change
Grand Challenges
Distributed Intelligence
S&T Acceleration
Globalization
Internet Democracy
Globalization of
R&D
Education
Workforce
21st century
Innovation
A new
Enabling Technology?
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
New Universities
Virtual
Communities
New Educational
Organizations
Future of
Venture Capital
Disruptive Technologies
For
Grand Challenges
Evolution of
Current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Macro Systems
especially Energy
?
Life Sciences
and
Information Technology
Relentless Change
Grand Challenges
Distributed Intelligence
S&T Acceleration
Globalization
Internet Democracy
Globalization of
R&D
Education
Workforce
Macro Systems
especially Energy
21st century
Innovation
A new
Enabling Technology?
Future of
Venture Capital
Disruptive Technologies
For
Grand Challenges
Evolution of
Current
Innovation System
Inducement
Prizes
Discovery Innovation
Institutes
21st century
Innovation
To Be Determined
New Universities
Virtual
Communities
by
New Educational
Organizations
A New Generation
?
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Engineering Education
Engineering Education
must reflect this.
Tiny Systems
Macro Systems
Energy
Natural Science
Nano
Environment
Bio
Health Care
Info
Manufacturing
Communications
Social Science
Logistics
Engineering Education must be
oriented to the grand challenges.
Energy
Environment
Global Warming
Sustainability
Improve Medicine and
Healthcare Delivery
Reducing Vulnerability to
Human and Natural Threats
Expand and Enhance
Human Capability
And Joy
% UG Degrees in Science or Engineering
Engineering Education
must reverse this.
25.0
20.0
15.0
Natural Sciences
Engineering
10.0
5.0
0.0
Asia
Europe
United States
By Changing the Conversation
A National Academy of Engineering Project
And by rediscovering
The Amazing Disappearing
Word
ENGINEER
ENGINEER
We need to get it back into the vernacular.
What is important in
Engineering Education
Making universities and engineering
schools exciting, creative, adventurous,
rigorous, demanding, and empowering
environments is more important than
specifying curricular details.
What is important in
Engineering Education
Making universities and engineering
schools exciting, creative, adventurous,
rigorous, demanding, and empowering
environments is more important than
specifying curricular details.
That’s what I learned at MIT.
Thank you.
Download