Socializing the Individual Sociology / Chapter 5 / Mr. Niño Section 1 Personality Development 5.1 Objectives The four factors of personality development How isolation in childhood affects development Define Personality, heredity, instinct, sociobiology, aptitude, feral children Personality Define personality Personality—the sum total of all behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individual Write some nouns/adjectives that describe your personality Personality Social skill/appeal Characteristic: humorous, assertive Determines acclimation to environment and situational reaction Develops and changes throughout lifetime Nature vs. Nurture What determines personality? Nature or nurture? Nature argument: human behavior is instinctual in origin Heredity—the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children Instinct—unchanging, biologically inherited behavior Ex: birds build nests and migrate Nature vs. Nurture Nurture argument: human behavior is the result of social environment and learning Humans Ex: can be conditioned/trained Pavlov’s dog Sociobiology—the systematic study of the basis of all social behavior Supports the nature viewpoint Cultural characteristics and behavioral traits (religion, cooperation, envy) are rooted in the genetic makeup of humans Personality Development Factors Heredity Physical: body build, hair/eye color, skin Aptitudes—a capacity to learn a particular skill or body of knowledge Ex: music, art, sports Heredity provides limits but does not determine Personality Development Factors Birth Order Only child vs. Siblings Order: First (achievement-oriented, conservative), Last (social, affectionate, friendly, liberal), Middle (open-minded, friendly, loyal) Personality Development Factors Parental Characteristics Age (twenties vs. thirties) Education and occupation Religion and culture Personality Development Factors Cultural Environment Determines basic types of personalities Provides model personalities Ex: U.S. (competitiveness, assertiveness, individualism) Male vs. Female treatment (interests, activities, clothing, speech, habits) Isolation in Childhood Feral Children—wild or untamed children who are isolated in homes by parents or family members few human characteristics No reasoning, manners, control of bodily functions Examples: Anna (confined to an attic) Isabelle (confined to a dark room) Genie (confined for 13 years) Section 2 The Social Self 5.2 Objectives How a person’s sense of self emerges Theories of socialization process Define Socialization, self, looking-glass self, role-taking, significant others, generalized other, I, me Identify Locke, Cooley, Mead 5.2 Objectives How a person’s sense of self emerges Theories of socialization process Define Socialization, self, looking-glass self, role-taking, significant others, generalized other, I, me Identify Locke, Cooley, Mead The Social Self At birth, human beings cannot: Talk, walk, feed, or protect Transformed through socialization—the interactive process through which people learn basic skills A sense of self—your conscious awareness of possessing a distinct identity—is developed Locke: The Tabula Rasa John Locke (English Philosopher) Each human being is a tabula rasa “clean slate” Born without personality Social experience creates personality Infants can be molded into any type of person Cooley: The Looking-Glass Self Charles Horton Cooley (interactionist) Looking-Glass Self Interactive process that develops self image How we imagine we appear to others Others are a mirror, reflecting back the image we project through their reactions to our behavior Three Step Process 1) we imagine how we appear 2) we reflect on how others judge us 3) we develop feelings about ourselves Mead: Role-Taking George Herbert Mead (interactionist) Beyond how we see ourselves as others see us Role-taking—pretending to take on the role of others; anticipating what others expect of us. Internalize expectations of “close ones” or significant others (parents, siblings, relatives) As we grow, significant others become less imp. Instead, generalized other—the attitudes, expectations, viewpoints of society Mead: Role-Taking (cont.) Role-taking three step process Imitation (2-3 years) Play (3-6) Games (6-11) Role-taking develops sense of self The Self consists of two parts “I” the unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interest “Me” aware of expectations, attitudes of society Erving Goffman Dramaturgy Social interaction is like a drama being performed on a stage People are audience & judge of character Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) Sociologist Psychologist Political Scientist “All the world’s a stage…” “Looking Glass Self” Interview To better understand how your socialized behavior is formed, you will interview family, friends, and teachers. Focus on questions that describe your personality. Interview 3 family members, 2 friends and 1 teacher.