2.06 PowerPoint Notes

Understand data-collection
methods to evaluate their
appropriateness for the
research problem/issue
Primary Data: Data obtained for the first time
and used specifically for the particular
problem or issue under study
Secondary Data: Data that has already been
collected for some purpose other than the
current study
Secondary data is less expensive to collect
than primary data
It is most effective for companies to decide
what secondary data it will use before
collecting primary data.
Methods of collecting primary
1. Survey method – a research technique in which information is
gathered from people through the use of surveys or questionnaires.
Surveyors usually use a sample of the entire target population to get
 Personal interview – involves questioning people face-to-face.
Often conducted in central locations. Advantage: People are
likely to respond. Disadvantage: Costly
 Focus group interview- involves eight to twelve people who are
brought together to evaluate a product, design, or strategy
under the direction of a skilled moderator
 Telephone interview – quick, efficient, and relatively
inexpensive. Disadvantage: some people are unwilling to
 Mail survey – relatively inexpensive way to reach a large
audience. Respondents are generally honest and find this type
of survey less intrusive. Disadvantage: return rate for mail surveys
is only 10%.
 Internet survey – includes wide-open polls, anybody-can-answer
polls, invitation-only surveys, password protected research sites,
and Internet – based panels.
Methods of collecting primary
2. Observation method – a research technique in
which the actions of people are watched and
recorded either by cameras or observers.
 Mystery shopper – a researcher who poses as a
 Point-of-sale research – a research technique
that combines natural observation with personal
interviews to get people to explain buying
3. Experimental method – a research technique in
which a researcher observes the results of changing
one or more marketing variables while keeping
certain other variables constant under controlled
conditions. Often used to test new package designs,
media usage, and new promotions.
The Marketing Survey
Businesses need valid and reliable data to make good
Marketing researchers need to know how to construct
survey instruments that provide the necessary
information to assist in the decision-making process.
Reliability – exists when a research technique produces
nearly identical results in repeated trials.
Validity- exists when the questions asked measure what
was intended to be measured
Questions can be either Open-ended or Forced-choice
Open-ended questions ask respondents to construct
their own response to a question.
Example: “How can we serve you better?”
Forced-choice questions ask respondents to choose
answers from possibilities given. These are the simplest
questions to write and the easiest to tabulate.
Can be multiple-choice questions, rating or ranking
scales, and level of agreement scales.
The Marketing Survey
Yes/No Questions: Only gives two options, should
only be used when asking for a response on one
Multiple-choice Questions: Gives the respondent
several choices, important that the options are
made comprehensive enough to include every
possible response. Usually includes an “other”
Rating Scale Questions: Variety of questions used
such as very satisfied to very dissatisfied, or
excellent to poor.
Level of Agreement Questions: Used to assess
attitudes or opinions. Commonly used options:
strongly agree (SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree
(D), and strongly disagree (SD).
Basic Guidelines for Writing
 Should
be written clearly
 Should be as brief as possible
 Do not ask leading questions which suggest a
correct answer
 Avoid bias
 Avoid questions that might cause a respondent
to guess at the meaning of your question.
 Pretest – allows for correction of any misleading
questions, directions, or problems
Formatting Surveys
Need excellent visual appearance and design to
appeal to respondents.
Use dark ink on light paper (Contrast)
Use type that is easy to read
Shade sections for contrast
Use arrows to lead the reader
Use section headers or numbers on individual survey
Number the questions
Directions for completion must be clear
Use a variety of question types (All answers should not be
Group demographic questions about gender, age,
ethnic background, and education, etc. at the end of
the questionnaire.