SEM1 2.06

SEM1 2.06
A – Marketing Information
- Understand data-collection
methods to evaluate their
appropriateness for the research
PI – Explain sources of primary SEM
Review – Primary & Secondary
Primary Data: Data obtained for the first time and used
specifically for the particular problem or issue under
Secondary Data: Data that has already been collected
for some purpose other than the current study
It is most effective for companies to decide what
secondary data it will use before collecting primary
data. But if you do not get good results, try primary
So how do you collect primary data? See the following
Survey method for
Primary Data
•A research technique in which information is
gathered from people through the use of surveys or
•Surveyors usually use a sample of the entire target
population to get results
 Cons
 Low
can be quantified
Accurate sample size
Able to ask many
participation rate
 Feedback is limited
Types of Surveys
Personal interview – involves questioning people face-toface. Often conducted in central locations. Advantage:
People are likely to respond. Disadvantage: Costly
Focus group interview- involves eight to twelve people
who are brought together to evaluate a product, design,
or strategy under the direction of a skilled moderator
Telephone interview – quick, efficient, and relatively
inexpensive. Disadvantage: some people are unwilling
to participate
Mail survey – relatively inexpensive way to reach a large
audience. Respondents are generally honest and find
this type of survey less intrusive. Disadvantage: return
rate for mail surveys is less than 5% - 10%.
Internet survey – includes wide-open polls, anybodycan-answer polls, invitation-only surveys, password
protected research sites, and Internet – based panels.
Observation method for
Primary Data
Observation method – a research technique in which the
actions of people are watched and recorded either by
cameras or observers.
 Mystery shopper – a researcher who poses as a customer
 Point-of-sale research – a research technique that
combines natural observation with personal interviews to
get people to explain buying behavior
 Focus groups
•Gauge consumer
•Monitor group reaction
•Susceptible to
leader’s biases
•Small sample size &
Experimental method for
Primary Data
A research technique in which a researcher observes
the results of changing one or more marketing variables
while keeping certain other variables constant under
controlled conditions.
Often used to test new package designs, media usage,
and new promotions.
•Pros - Can be performed in actual settings
•Participants not aware of monitoring so natural
•Cons - Sample is small and hard to control
•Interpretation of data may be difficult
The marketing survey
 Why?
Businesses need valid and reliable data to make
good decisions.
But, marketing researchers need to know how to
construct survey instruments that provide the
necessary information to assist in the decisionmaking process.
 But
they must have:
Reliability – exists when a research technique
produces nearly identical results in repeated trials.
Validity- exists when the questions asked measure
what was intended to be measured
The marketing survey
of questions used in surveys
 Open-ended
questions ask respondents to
construct their own response to a question.
Example: “How can we serve you better?”
 Forced-choice
questions ask respondents to
choose answers from possibilities given. These are
the simplest questions to write and the easiest to
Types of forced-choice questions are as follows:
The marketing survey
Forced-choice questions
Yes/No Questions: Only gives two options, should only
be used when asking for a response on one issue.
Multiple-choice Questions: Gives the respondent several
choices, important that the options are made
comprehensive enough to include every possible
response. Usually includes an “other” option.
Rating Scale Questions: Variety of questions used such
as very satisfied to very dissatisfied, or excellent to poor.
Level of Agreement Questions: Used to assess attitudes
or opinions. Commonly used options: strongly agree
(SA), agree (A), neutral (N), disagree (D), and strongly
disagree (SD).
The marketing survey
 Basic
guidelines for writing questions:
Should be written clearly
Should be as brief as possible
Do not ask leading questions which suggest a
correct answer
Avoid bias
Avoid questions that might cause a respondent to
guess at the meaning of your question.
Pretest – allows for correction of any misleading
questions, directions, or problems
The marketing survey
Need excellent visual appearance and design to appeal
to respondents.
Use dark ink on light paper (Contrast)
Use type that is easy to read
Shade sections for contrast
Use arrows to lead the reader
Use section headers or numbers on individual survey
Number the questions
Directions for completion must be clear
Use a variety of question types (All answers should not be
Group demographic questions about gender, age, ethnic
background, and education, etc. at the end of the
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