The Communication of the Gospel: Evangelism AG Seminarians’ Seminar AGTS July 21, 2011 DeLonn Rance Ph.D. Missions is about God A God of Love A God who Seeks the Lost Genesis 3:8-10 Luke 15, 19 Revelation 22 What is the mission of the church? Need versus Availability Jesus is the Water of Life There is sufficient water for every person on the planet. But the church is commissioned to make it available. The Assemblies of God World Missions Manual In November 1914, our early leaders met at the Stone Church in Chicago and made an astounding declaration: “As a Council, . . . we commit ourselves and the Movement to Him for the greatest evangelism that the world has ever seen.” How could such a small group of Christians even consider such a daunting task? Because their vision had been forged in the fires of Pentecostal revival! They believed Christ truly meant “ . . . go into all the world and preach the gospel” (Mark 16:15, NKJV) and that the power of the Holy Spirit would enable them to do it (Acts 1:8). From the outset, our fellowship has been marked by a vision to reach all the world and a dependence on the Holy Spirit to do supernatural works (1999:11). “Whenever in any period of the Church’s history a little company has sprung up so surrendered to the Spirit and so filled with His presence as to furnish the pliant instruments of His will, then a new Pentecost has dawned in Christendom, and as a consequence the Great Commission has been republished; and following a fresh tarrying in Jerusalem for the endowment of power has been a fresh witnessing for Christ from Jerusalem to the uttermost parts of the earth” (A.J. Gordon 1893:52-53). McClung finds an emerging missiology in the admonition of William Seymour to his flock of the Azusa Street Revival. He quotes Seymour: “Now, do not go from this meeting and talk about tongues, but try to get people saved” (1999:35) and observes: At the heart of early Pentecostals’ missiology was their personal experience with the Holy Spirit found around an altar of prayer with fellow seekers. This profound experience was integrated with an eschatological urgency and a passion for souls [eschatology/experience/ evangelism]. Apparently, their earliest understanding of the experience that came to be known as the “Baptism in the Holy Spirit” was that it produced a missiological fervor and ministry, and it provided the empowerment for the same (McClung 1999:36). Acts 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.“ Baptism in the Holy Spirit- power to give witness to the resurrection of Christ in holiness and service The Apostolic People of God A Spirit-Empowered People The Holy Spirit as person of God, the personal presence of God, as the empowering presence of God is crucial in all of Christian life and experience, both individually and corporately, as an eschatological community in the world (Fee 1994:5, 876, 896-897). A Summary of the AG Missiological Narrative Based on the conviction that the Holy Spirit would be poured out on all flesh as a prelude to the second coming of Christ in order to empower the church to give witness to all nations, the founding members of the Assemblies of God committed themselves to the evangelization of the entire world. They believed they were a part of God’s cosmic eschatological design. Though the realization of the plan seemed improbable by human standards, these believers were grounded in the biblical truth that God’s glory is revealed in weakness. They were humbled and empowered by the presence of the Holy Spirit. Every member of the body of Christ was responsible for the task, for every member was a temple of the Spirit of the living God. Strategic planning, accountability and missional structures were to be submitted to the Spirit’s guidance. Personal experience and biblical truth were integrated in the life of the believer, the life of the church, and the missionary endeavor. In the New Testament narrative patterns were sought and adhered to on the conviction that biblical patterns were Spirit empowered patterns, missiological truth was to be biblical truth and the New Testament narrative was to be a contemporary narrative. The individuals and peoples of the world, according to Scripture, were condemned without Christ. Pentecost was the empowering agent of the church to communicate God’s plan of salvation to all in preparation for the coming of Christ and the final judgment (Rance 2004:81). What is Good News? How important are words? What is the mission of the church? Is the church optional in missions? What is the difference between mission, missions, evangelism, and ministry? Is mission the basis of the Bible or is the Bible the basis of mission? The preamble to the “Strategic Plan of the AGWM” synthesizes the essential content of a Pentecostal perspective on the church and its mission, ministry and leadership. There it states that: “All true missionary endeavor begins and ends with God the Creator, Sustainer, Savior, and Lord.” It is in God that the church, the earthly manifestation of the kingdom of God in the present age, finds its definition. What is the “Good News”? 1 Cor. 15:1-5 The Bible gives us the message that it is through Jesus Christ that humans and all of creation will be redeemed. We are stewards of this message, and we are charged to communicate it faithfully in meaningful ways to different peoples and cultures. According to the Lausanne Covenant: "to evangelize is to spread the good news that Jesus Christ died for our sins and was raised from the dead according to the Scriptures, and that as the reigning Lord he now offers the forgiveness of sins and the liberating gift of the Spirit to all who repent and believe.“ Our message comes from Scripture. It is a message upon which all of the apostles are in agreement. I Cor. 15:11, Gal. 1:6-8 The Word indicates that we must be good stewards of this message. I Tim. 6:20, II Tim. 1:12-14, II Cor. 4:1-2. Cape Town Commitment ‘Evangelism itself is the proclamation of the historical, biblical Christ as Saviour and Lord, with a view to persuading people to come to him personally and so be reconciled to God…The results of evangelism include obedience to Christ, incorporation into his Church and responsible service in the world… We affirm that evangelism and sociopolitical involvement are both part of our Christian duty. For both are necessary expressions of our doctrines of God and humankind, our love for our neighbour and our obedience to Jesus Christ…The salvation we proclaim should be transforming us in the totality of our personal and social responsibilities. Faith without works is dead.’ (Cape Town Commitment p.21) ‘Integral mission is the proclamation and demonstration of the gospel. It is not simply that evangelism and social involvement are to be done alongside each other. Rather, in integral mission our proclamation has social consequences as we call people to love and repentance in all areas of life. And our social involvement has evangelistic consequences as we bear witness to the transforming grace of Jesus Christ. If we ignore the world, we betray the Word of God which sends us out to serve the world. If we ignore the Word of God, we have nothing to bring to the world.’ (Cape Town Commitment p. 21) The Full Gospel Jesus Christ is proclaimed as Savior • Spiritual Need Healer • Physical Need Baptizer • Emotional and Volitional Needs Soon Coming King • Our Reason for Being, our Hope The Three-Fold Ministry of the Church 1. We are called to serve and worship God. (John 4:23-25; Acts 13:2). Vertical relationship, all of life is worship not just moments at the altar, but those moments are vital, and often life-changing. 2. The church has a ministry to its own members. We are to build one another up, to use the gifts God has given us for the benefit of his community, we are to love another, forgive one another, accept one another, that we might reflect and communicate his love. (1 Cor. 12:12-27; Eph. 4:16) 3. The church has a ministry to the world, to communicate the gospel of Jesus Christ. (Matt. 28:18-20, Acts 1:8) Evangelism The Four-Fold Ministry of the Church 1) evangelization of the world (Mark 16:15-20), (2) worship of God (John 4:23,24), and (3) building a Body of saints being perfected in the image of His Son (Ephesians 4:11,16), and (4) meeting human need with ministries of love and compassion (Psalm 112:9; Galatians 2:10; 6:10; James 1:27). …(emphasizing)… the apostolic pattern by teaching and encouraging believers to be baptized in the Holy Spirit, which enables them to evangelize in the power of the Spirit with accompanying supernatural signs, adding a necessary dimension to worshipful relationship with God, and enabling them to respond to the full working of the Holy Spirit in expression of fruits and gifts and ministries as in New Testament times for the edifying of the Body of Christ.” The Assemblies of God exists expressly to give continuing emphasis to this reason for being in the New Testament apostolic pattern by teaching and encouraging believers to be baptized in the Holy Spirit. This experience: a. Enables them to evangelize in the power of the Spirit with accompanying supernatural signs (Mark 16:15-20; Acts 4:29-31; Hebrews 2:3,4). b. Adds a necessary dimension to a worshipful relationship with God (1 Corinthians 2:10-16; 1 Corinthians 1214). c. Enables them to respond to the full working of the Holy Spirit in expression of fruit and gifts and ministries as in New Testament times for the edifying of the body of Christ and care for the poor and needy of the world (Galatians 5:22-26; Matthew 25:37-40; Galatians 6:10; 1 Corinthians 14:12; Ephesians 4:11,12; 1 Corinthians 12:28; Colossians 1:29). Our Mission: Reaching: We are proclaiming the message of Jesus Christ to the spiritually lost in all the world through every available means. Planting: We are establishing churches in more than 150 nations, following the New Testament pattern. Training: We are training leaders throughout the world to proclaim the message of Jesus Christ to their own people and to other nations. Touching: We are touching poor and suffering people with the compassion of Jesus Christ and inviting them to become his followers (Pentecostal Evangel 2001b:2). Identified as the “Four Pillars” of AGWM Our Message: Bible-Based: God’s inspired and infallible Word is the seed of the world harvest, the bread for the spiritually hungry, and the light that proclaims God’s grace and deliverance to a world that is lost and bound in the darkness of sin. Spirit-Empowered: The Spirit convinces of sin, brings assurance of sins forgiven, imparts peace that passes understanding, and guides into all truth. We are totally dependent on the Holy Spirit to empower our message so it can bear the fruit God has promised. Christ-Centered: Jesus, . . . God who became man, . . . is the Savior of the World. He offered up his life to redeem sinful mankind. Like the missionary-apostle Paul, our message to a lost world is “Jesus Christ and him crucified” 1 Cor. 2:2 (Pentecostal Evangel 2001a:32). Who’s doing missions/ministry? Fourfold Aspect of the Paradigm of Christ in Ministry Ray. S. Anderson 1. All Ministry is God’s Ministry God’s ministry must proceed and determine the ministry of the church not vice-versa. The revelation of God is not waiting for us to define it rather it can be known only by responding to it. Theology and ministry are not experience centered but rather experience-certified. This can be more clearly illustrated by the following diagram: All Ministry is God’s Ministry GOD WORD RESPONSE (REVELATION) (RECONCILIATION) HUMAN Fourfold Aspect of the Paradigm of Christ in Ministry 1. All Ministry is God’s Ministry 2. Jesus’ ministry to the Father on behalf of the world. 3. Jesus’ ministry in the Spirit for the sake of the Church. 4. The ministry of the church to the world in behalf of Jesus. THE MINISTRY OF THE CHURCH THE APOSTOLIC MANDATE Gospel Church What is our purpose? What is God’s agenda? Mission THE MINISTRY OF THE CHURCH Gospel Church Mission THE THEOLOGICAL MANDATE Where does the power come from? Is Christ central? Is this Christ’s ministry? Is it the creation of possibility out of impossibility by the Spirit? The apostolic mandate is the gospel of the Kingdom communicated in word and deed by the Church to the world. The Church is central to the plan of God in mission and to the goal of missional endeavor. The greatest act of social compassion (of social justice) is to plant a local church. Christ the Master Missionary Communicator/Contextualizer We can talk about the blood of Jesus, Justification by faith, the kingdom of God, the gospel as sacrifice (the blood of the Lamb), as the Messiah (promise fulfilled), as Judge (he who justifies), as personal (a father reconciling his children), as Savior (liberation of the oppressed) or at a cosmic level (the universal Lord). John 3-4 New Testament Words Used in Connection with the Apostolic Ministry Euangelizo evangelize used 54 times in NT Euangelion evangel or gospel used 76 times in NT Euangelistes evangelist used 3 times in NT Kerysso Kerygma Keryx Martyreo proclaim proclamation herald bear witness Syngcheo confound Acts 9:22 Symbibazo prove Acts 9:22 Diegeomai declare Acts 9:27 Syzeteo dispute Acts 9:29 Laleo speak Acts 9:29 Dialegomai reason with Acts 18:4 Peitho persuade Acts 18:4 Noutheteo admonish, warn Acts 20:31 Katecho inform, instruct Acts 21:21,24 Deomai beg, beseech 2 Cor. 5:20 Elengcho reprove 2 Tim. 4:2 Epitimao rebuke 2 Tim. 4:2 Parakaleo exhort, urge 1 Peter 2:11 (Hesselgrave 1978:20-21) Incarnational Communication John 13 The Bible gives us his model, Jesus, God's divine communication, the logos is communicated through the written word. He humbled himself, broke into human history in human form to make known to us, God himself. He became flesh and dwelt among us that we could understand and know him. We too must flesh out Christ, God's living Word in a dying world. Phil. 2: The Word was made flesh. The divine was communicated through the human. The Word of God was communicated through the words of humans. Christ identified with humanity without loosing his own identity as deity. The church is the word made flesh. Christ is the model. He emptied himself, he took off the outer appearance of deity, he humbled himself and became flesh. We must identify with the receptor culture, language, customs, foods. etc. without loosing our identity as Christians. Paul's example. I Cor. 9:20-23 "that some may be saved." We must find an appropriate cup so that the gospel is communicated and the church is established in such a way as to be indigenous, contextualized, with no offense but the offense of the cross. Sadhu Sundar Singh (1889-1929) We must follow his example, communicating the infinite through the finite. The water never changes, the church is always the body of Christ, but the glass through which it expresses itself does change from culture to culture. It is the church’s responsibility to, by the Spirit, to find the appropriate cup to express itself appropriately. For the gospel and the church is for every culture. BIBLICAL VERITIES THAT UNDERGIRD THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH Melvin Hodges 1. The Scriptures, the final authority for faith and practice, are final in determining the nature and scope of the Church's mission. 2. The lostness of man (humankind), separated from God and without the ability to save himself, is a tragic fact which finds its remedy only in the salvation offered through the gospel of Christ. 3. The uniqueness of Jesus Christ as God's Son and (humankind's) Savior. "Neither is there salvation in any other." (Acts 4:12) 4. All men (humans) are candidates for salvation in Jesus Christ on the condition of repentance from evil works and faith toward God through Jesus Christ. 5. The Church, composed of true believers in Jesus Christ, is God's own possession and His agent for world evangelism. 6. The Holy Spirit dwells in the Church and becomes the source of power and equipment for missions as believers receive of His fullness. 7. The return of Christ to the earth is the hope of true believers and the final solution to earth's ills. The kingdoms of this earth shall become the kingdoms of our God and His Christ, and He shall reign forever. The Cycle de Evangelism 5. Propagation 4. Participation 1. Presence 2. Proclamation 3. Persuasion The Cycle of Evangelism: Five "p"s of Evangelism 1. Presence: Matt. 5:13-16 2. Proclamation: Luke 24:46-48; Mark 16:15-16 3. Persuasion: 2 Cor. 5:11, 14; Acts 26:28-29 4. Participation: Gal 6:8,9; Matt. 5:16, Eph. 4:16 5. Propagation Contextualization Contextualization: is the search for a means by which to communicate the gospel in a way with is understood by the receptor culture without accommodating to it. The church and the gospel is for every culture. But many reject the gospel because the perceive it as something foreign or strange. We must communicate the gospel and found the church in such a way as to be indigenous or contextualized. A church which is founded on the foundation of biblical revelation while being expressed in the local culture. To plant the church does not necessarily mean build churches or sing certain types of hymns or choruses, or have a certain style of dress. The church is his body and it can express itself in a diversity of manners. Doing Theology: Elements of Contextualization Word/Gospel Church World The Missionary Task The Apostolic Function Where is Jesus not known? Evangelicals in 1780 OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) Tel: +55-11-523-2544 Source: WEC International, 1984 MU-101 Evangelicals in 1980 OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) Tel: +55-11-523-2544 Source: WEC International, 1984 MU-102 The Unfinished Task Population: 6.2 billion World A 1.6 b 26% World B 2.6 b 41% World C 2.0 b 33% World A: the unevangelized World B: the evangelized non-Christians World C: the Christian world (including nominals) OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) Tel: +55-11-5523-2544 Source: David B. Barrett: Our Globe and How To Reach It (GEM) MU-512 Chitral Kashmiri i Shina Pushtun Pakistan Balti Punjabi Brahui (One Country, Many Peoples) Baluchi OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) Tel: +55-11-523-2544 Source: WEC International, 1984 Sindhi Bhi l PN-001 Indigenous Tribes of Brazil: Map Ingarikó Patamona Taurepang Galibi do Oiapoque Karipuna do Amapá Mayongong Makuxi Kuripako Desana Kobewa Tukano Tuyuka Barasano do Norte Yuhup Siriano Galibi do Uaça Palikuri Yanomami Sikiana Tiriyó Wapixana Baníwa Makuna Warekena Akuriô Mandawaka Apalaí Isolados do Mapuera Wanano Yabaana Tariano Arapaso Juriti Dâw Baré Miriti Pira-Tapuia Karapanã Waiãpi Wayana Karafawyana Hixkariana Zo’e Kaxuyana Isolados do Cuminá Wai-Wai Xereu Waimiri-Atroari Mawayana Katuena Nadëb Hupda Kaixana Arara do Pará Tremembé Tapeba Guajá Asurini do Xingu Isolados do Quixito Korubo Isolados do São José Urubu-Kaapor Asurini do Tocantins Sataré-Mawaé Tikuna Isolados do Curuçá Tembé Anambé Kambeba Miranha Kokama Mura Pitaguari Parakanã Xipaia Araweté Gavião do Pará Guajajara Paiaku Krejê Kulina Tsohom-Djapá Isolados do Rio Tapirapé Kuruaya Suruí do Pará Gavião do Maranhão Isolados do Parauari Maitapú Himarimã Matis Isolados do Jandiatuba Aipim Jarawara Torá Krikati Canela Kanamari Suruwahá Apinajé Banawá Deni Poyanawa Amawaka Jamamadi Mura-Pirahã Isolados do Alto Jutaí Nukuini Juma Munduruku Xambioá Katukina-Juruá Isolados do Parintintin Mamoriazinho Kayapó Kamanawa Paumari Tenharim Jaminawa Apurinã Krahô Shanenawa Katukina-Jutaí Isolados do Teles Pires Isolados do Bararati Isolados do Jacareúba Arara do Acre Diahoi Itogapuk Naua Isolados do Arama e Inauini Yakarawakta Kaxinawá Isolados do Madeirinha Karitiana Yawanawa Kaxarari Isolados do Igarapé Xinane Isolados do Isolados do Rio Liberdade Xerente Papavô Rio Candeias Arara do Mato Grosso Isolados do Igarapé Tabocal Tapayuna Arara de Rondônia Uru-Pa-In Karipuna Ashéninca-Kampa Karajá Zoró de Rondônia Rikbaktsa Miqueleno Kreen-Akarore Manchineri Gavião de Rondônia Tapirapé Kayabi Juruna Suruí de Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau Suyá Rondônia Pakaás-Novos (Oro-Mawin) Txikão Apiaká Amundava Guazá Mekém Javaé Matipu Cinta-Larga Pakaás-Novos (Orowari) Makurap Trumai Tuxá Enawenê-Nawê Kalapalo Sakiriabar Aikanã Nahukwá Ajuru Mynky Kamayurá Uraparaquara Mehinaku Kanoé Aruá Irantxe Sabanê Aweti Kuikuro Jabuti Arikapu Tupari Nambikwara Waurá Kampé Pankaru Yawalapiti Isolados da Serra do Taquaral Mamaindé Avá-Canoeiro Akunsu Parecis Latundê Negarotê Bakairi Tapuia Xavante Xakriabá Umutina Mayoruna Marubo Bororo Potiguara Kariri Pipipã Atikum Kambiwá Truká Kalankó Kantaruré Pankararé Tumbalalá Pankararu Kaimbé Kiriri Tupinambá Pataxó-Hãhãhãe Maxakali Aranã Pataxó Guató Kamba Kaxixó Krenak Tupinikim Terena Kadiwéu Kinikinao Ofayé Chamacoco Kaiwá Xetá Status of Gospel (colors) Evangelical Missionary Work Guarani No Evangelical Missionary Work Xokleng No Data Scripture Translation ( symbols ) Kaingang Bible Completed New Testament Completed Without New Testament Completed Observation: Each tribe is represented by only one point, although the tribe may have several villages, even in more than one state. Source: AMTB, Department of Indigenous Affairs (Paulo Bottrel, JMN - CBB) Production: Ted Limpic, SEPAL (www.sepal.org.br) Update: Marcelo Sales, AMEM, Mar-2003 Xukuru Kapinawá Fulniô Xocó Karuazu Wassu Tingui-Botó Xukuru-Kariri Karapotó Kariri-Xocó Jiripankó The Bible Translated (6,858 Languages in the World) New Test 13% Some Scripture 13% 918 928 366 Bible 5% Need Survey 36% > 2500 SEPAL (+55-11-523-2544) Source: SIL (Ethnologue-1998) > 2000 SEPAL - 2000 Need Translation 29% MU-506 Three & The The10/40 10/40Window Window ThreeReligious Religious Blocks Blocks & Countries with majority Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist Over 50 % Hindu Muslim Buddhist Data from Johnstone, Operation World CD-ROM 2001. Map by Global Mapping International - www.gmi.org 48 Muslim Countries - Pop. at AD2000 = 1.1 Billion 2 Hindu Countries - Pop. at AD2000 = 1.0 Billion 8 Buddhist Countries - Pop. at AD2000 = 351 Million Total - 58 Countries Pop. at AD2000 = 2.5 Billion OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) LB/ph 3REL3 - Rev 4: 9/2001 Today’s Challenge (World population: 6.2 billion) 2.0 billion “Christians” 33% of world Authentic ? 2.6 billion Nominal 1.6 billion Can Hear “Non-Christians” 67% of world Will Never Hear Data: GEM (www.gem-werc.com) Chart: Ted Limpic, SEPAL (2002) MU-514 The World’s Evangelicals 1960-2000 100% Europe and N. America 80% 60% 40% Asia, Africa and Latin America 20% 0% 1960 OC International-Brazil (SEPAL) Tel: +55-11-523-2544 65 70 75 80 85 Source: Patrick Johnstone, Operation 90 95 2000 MU-515 Definitions and Concepts • Defining frontier missions Many Different Peoples, Tribes and Tongues-Many Different Churches to Reach Them The Extent of Normal Outreach Normal Near Neighbor Evangelism... The Gospel travels fastest when shared with people who are culturally near to the evangelist. The Need for Frontier Missions-Unreached People Groups “If every congregation in the world were to undergo a great revival and reach out to every person within their own peoplethat is, to everyone in the cultural spheres represented by each congregation-over half of all remaining non-Christians would still not be reached.” Art Glasser Conclusion: Becoming Apostolic/Missionary People of God Who is responsible for reaching the unreached? The entire Apostolic/Missionary People of God LaDawn Rance The Homeless Church of San Francisco Who is responsible for missions? Do the homeless have a responsibility in Missions? As the people of God, members of the Assemblies of God enjoy the blessings of God every moment of every day. To be the apostolic people of God, the Assemblies of God of all nations must commit to the communicating the gospel to all people. This will require that every member of the Body be mobilized to become a global Christian, a person committed to the missionary disciplines of missionary prayer, missionary giving, and obedience to the Spirit’s missional directives. A mobilized apostolic people of God will give witness locally and globally by sending and supporting those called by God to cross cultural barriers with the gospel. May the Assemblies of God worldwide become in reality what it already is by faith “the Apostolic People of God” affirming that God is the author of missions (you will be my witnesses), recognizing that the church is the agency of missions (you will be my witnesses), and committing to the action of missions (you will be my witnesses). References Cited Into All The World: The New Missionary Manual. Springfield, MO: Assemblies of God Foreign Missions, 1999 Anderson, Ray S., ed. Theological Foundations for Ministry. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1979. Anderson, Ray S. Minding God's Business. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1986. Klaus, Byron D. “Class Notes” for the course CLG505 The Church in Theological Perspective, Vanguard University, 1987. Klaus, Byron D. “Class Notes” for the course CLG555 Theological Education in the Third World, Vanguard University, 1987. Rance, DeLonn L. The Empowered Call: The Activity of the Holy Spirit in Salvadoran Assemblies of God Missionaries. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 2004. Rance, DeLonn L. “A final exam” presented to Dr. Byron Klaus for the course CLG505 The Church in Theological Perspective, Vanguard University, 1987. References Cited Cate, Patrick O. Through God’s Eyes: A Bible Study of God’s Motivations for Missions, Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 2004. Johnson, Todd M., Peter F. Crossing, and Bobby Jangsun Ryu. “Looking Forward: An Overview of World Evangelization, 2005-2025” presented to Lausanne 2004, Center for the Study of Global Christianity, www.globalchristianity.org, 2004. Gordon, A. J. The Holy Spirit in Missions. London, U.K.: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893. Hesselgrave, David J. Communicating Christ Cross-Culturally: An Introduction to Missionary Communication. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. McClung, L. Grant. "'Try To Get People Saved:' Revisiting the Paradigm of an Urgent Pentecostal Missiology." In The Globalization of Pentecostalism: A Religion Made to Travel, ed. Murray W. Dempster, Byron D. Klaus, and Douglas Petersen, 3051. Irvine, CA: Regnum Books International, 1999.