Components of the Cell System To know prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures and their functions How does the cell work as a system responsible for maintaining life? Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Cell Membrane Cell Wall Nucleus Cytoplasm Mitochondria Chloroplast Components of the Cell System Structures and their Functions Two Basic Types of Cells form a great diversity Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotic Cells - a simple but effective compartment Eubacteria and Archaea Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA Eukaryotic Cells - A compartment full of compartments Animals, plants, fungi, and protists Contain a nucleus and many organelles 1. Cell Membrane Outside boundary of cell Double layer of FAT molecules (“phospholipid bilayer”) Proteins embedded within; have different functions Protects cell and regulates what enters and exits Does form seem to fit function? 2. Cell Wall Plants, some fungi, some bacteria, some protists have this Outside of membrane Provides structure Made of carbohydrates (mainly cellulose, which we know as fiber) Does form seem to fit function? Holds DNA and controls the cells activities. Does form seem to fit function? 3. Nucleus Pores in the nuclear membrane control flow of materials in and out. Transmission EM of Nucleus. 3.5 Nucleolus Region within the nucleus where ribosomes are formed Ribosomes?… so ALSO where proteins are also formed! 4. Cytoplasm Present in all cells Jelly-like mixture of water, proteins, salt and sugar AND organelles. “Cytosol” = just jelly Ok to use inter-changeably, but know the difference Does form seem to fit function? The Organelles Smaller, specialized compartments within a cell 5. Mitochondria Where energy stored in food is converted for use in the cell Number of mitochondria in a cell depends on the purpose of the cell Muscle cells Skin cells Does form seem to fit function? Many reactions happen at the inner membrane. Need a hint? Ask me! 6. Chloroplasts Chlorophyll - green pigment that allows photosynthesis Inside, contains flattened sacs “thylakoids”, where photosynthesis occurs Only in plants… though bluegreen pigment like chlorophyll found in some bacteria Does form seem to fit function? Many reactions happen at the inner membrane. Need a hint? Ask me! 7. Ribosomes: Not compartments! No membrane Composed of two subunits Protein structures where more proteins are made The most abundant of all cell parts Does form seem to fit function? 8. Endoplasmic Reticulum A large network of membranes that acts like a highway to allow molecules to move throughout cell Vesicles break off ER to transmit substances around cell Two types… Does form seem to fit function? 8a. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Studded with ribosomes! Processes proteins to export from the cell 8b. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum No ribosomes! Makes lipids (fats and steroids) Detoxification in liver cells 9. Golgi Bodies/Apparatus System of flattened sacs called cisternae Works with the RER to modify, package and release proteins Spawns vesicles to transport materials to the cell membrane Does form seem to fit function? Think about the location. 10. Vacuoles In plant cells: large and used for water + nutrient storage In animal cells: small and numerous and contain a variety of substances Does form seem to fit function? 11. Lysosomes Small, abundant sacs Contain chemicals for digesting waste, toxins, or useless organelles Formed from Golgi Common in animal and fungus cells Does form seem to fit function? How do we know all of this? The Cell Theory, developed in 1839 The microscope opened a world of discovery of life never seen before. By 1839, scientists Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow concluded the following as the…. The Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells come from other cells. Summary Activities Skim through your notes. Write a short paragraph explaining what you are taking away from this lecture. It can be as specific or as broad as you like. Finish The Cell: Structures and Functions (Analogy) Next Day: Complete the cell structures puzzle. See if you can match each function to the structure of the organelle! Does form fit function? If so, how? POGIL activity with your group, due in a week. Quiz to come!