REVOLUTIONS family class

By the end of this unit you will be able to….
1. Charles-Louis Montesquieu
2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
3. Denis Diderot
4. Rene Descartes
5. Voltaire
6. Thomas Jefferson
7. James Madison
8. John Locke
Answer… what was the effect of their philosophies on the democratic revolutions
in England, America, and France?
Compare and contrast the…
Glorious Revolution
The American Revolution
The French Revolution
Please, pay particular attention to the expectation of self
government and Individual Liberty
List the principles of the…
Magna Carta
English Bill of Rights
American Declaration of Independence
The French Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
The U. S Bill of Rights
The U. S Constitution…the ideals of equality, justice and
freedom under the law
Explain the meaning of Voltaire’s word
“ I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right
to say it”
In a group of 5 you will prepare answers to the following:
Montesquieu…who was he, why do you like/dislike him, what did he say about
government, or individual rights?
Natural Rights… what does it mean, who came up with the idea, who has it, when
do they have it, who can take it away?
Natural Law… definition (in your own words), who proposed it, what is it? The
Social Contract…what is it, what does it say, who wrote it, what does it mean?
Jean-Jacques Rousseau… who was he, do you like/dislike him, what did he think
about REASON, what is REASON?, what did he think about human
The General Will… who came up with it, what is it, what does it mean, what
governmental system is best represented by this system, which is not?
Each member of the group will use a different color to transfer/write and draw
your answers on the poster.
I will grade on the depth of understanding of your answers, your creativity (would
I buy this in an art gallery?), the completeness of your answers, and the
contributions of EVERY MEMBER.
For the second poster, in this series, you will…
Make a poster that lists the major IDEAS, and
contributions, of the 8 listed philosophers.
Each must have at least 5 entries
You will summarize your poster by answering the following
question (for each philosopher)
– How did each philosopher contribute to our way of life today?
– If your group could adopt one philosopher which one would it be and
explain why?
England’s road to democracy
For 1000 years, the English had a monarchy…kings.
Kings shared power with their nobles who gave them military and
monetary support.
The power, therefore, was primarily in the hands of the nobility.
They didn’t pay taxes, they were free to do anything they
wanted to, to their serfs (dude), they were above the law…and
they enjoyed the power…so would you!
Enter a handsome, kind, brave, clever, and romantic king,
Richard the Lionhearted…so what if he only spoke French!
Did I mention he was handsome?
His younger brother, John, was cruel, cowardly, clever,
unromantic, and unpopular.
Richard the Lionhearted only spent 9 months of his reign in
The rest of the time he was off with the Crusades…killing,
burning, pillaging, and raping in the name of religion
While Richard is off ‘with the boys,’ John is
taxing the nobles, imprisoning ordinary folk…
grabbing cash wherever he could so he could
live in luxury.
John was a really nasty piece of work.
His nephew, Arthur, Richard’s son, had a
better claim to the throne than he did, so he
had him murdered…he was 5 years old.
He was always watching his back, as he was
convinced all his men were trying to kill
him…they were!
After Richard died, John became king and
ruined the economy of England, and Ireland.
Some of the nobility, Barons, got so fed up
with the mess John was making of the country,
they rebelled and captured London.
from the
was one thing! But, he
In 1215 AD/CE
had had
from them and they were ticked
and so they………………
John’s tomb
In 1215 AD/CE they had had enough and
so they………………
Forced him to meet their leaders at Runnymede,
near London, on June 15, 1215 to seal the
Great Charter called, in Latin, Magna Carta.
 Magna Carta influenced many common laws and
other documents, such as the US Constitution
and Bill of Rights, and is considered one of the
most important legal documents in the history of
 Magna Carta required the king to give up certain
rights, respect certain legal procedures and
accept that the king was not above the law.
 It protected certain rights of the king's subjects…
the right of Habeas Corpus, meaning that they
had rights against unlawful imprisonment.
The results…..
The power of the king was reduced forever.
 The Magna Carta establishes very important precedents in English
government and law.
1. The English monarch was answerable to the people
2. The English monarch was not above the law
3. The idea of Divine Right, in England, was dead…very different from the
4. Habeas corpus (Latin: ‘We command that you have the body’) is the
name of a legal action, through which a person can seek relief from
unlawful detention of themselves or another person.
The writ of habeas corpus has historically been an important instrument
for the safeguarding of individual freedom against arbitrary state action.
This one you will get a laugh out of…Clause 54 says that no man may be imprisoned on
the testimony of a woman except on the death of her husband.
Back to nasty King John….
Whilst crossing a body of water, the Wash…yes, it’s called the Wash…John’s
entire treasure disappeared beneath the water and was swallowed up in the mud.
All his gold, precious jewels, and jewelry gone! …this certainly proves the old
saying – everything comes out in the wash!
King John, famous for his disgusting feeding habits, literally ate himself to death
in 1216!
Glass windows introduced to replace
brick windows in 1180…I bet the
view was better
In 1185 Oxford University began…this is the
Knife and fork
introduced into England
in 1200
As we are interested in the development of British Constitutional
Monarchy, we will skip through the next four centuries…past the
Black Death, past the 100 years war, past the revolting Scots, past
Henry VIII and all his wives…we are getting close… past the
introduction of tobacco and potatoes to England…and finally we
land at Charles I...all 4 foot 10 of him!
The Many Faces of Charles I
Charles I by Van Dyck (1633)
How do you
suppose he looks
as tall as the
And here is
Standing a proud 4 foot 10 inches he was prudish,
shy, shifty, and he stammered.
Born in Scotland he really did not understand the
English…but then who does?
He believed if he set a good example, the world
would follow…how wrong could he be?
For a start, he went and married the horribly
haughty Henrietta…the king of France’s
daughter…and she was taller than him!
Whom his faithful English subjects soon learned to
Charles managed to get into a war with Spain.
He asked Parliament for money, to fight, and they
told him no and to go get tall!
So, he tried to get sneaky, he forced people to
house and feed his soldiers in their homes… this is
called quartering …remember it!
Parliament finally gave him the money…which he lost
and had to ask the Spanish king for peace!
He certainly forgot about the Magna Carta
Charles was one of those kings who thought he was next in line to
God, which meant nobody had the right to question him…“How tall
are you your majesty?” That really got him mad!
 Parliament thought it had the right to question him…they were on a
collision course.
 In the end, things came to the crunch over – three guesses?
 Yup, religion
 Parliament passed a law against the Catholic faith which Charles,
having Catholic sympathies, took rather badly…his wife was
Catholic and taller!
 He dismissed Parliament and ran the country alone…for 11 years!
 Charles was strapped for cash
 And then for reasons only known to himself he taxed anyone who
lived near the sea…the ship tax!
 Hello, England’s an island…everyone lives near the sea!
 Parliament refused to give him any more money…he was so ticked
off he…
He was so mad he took what was left of his army to London to arrest them all!
Well you just don’t do that to Parliament…and besides they all hid and he
couldn’t find them!
The whole country took sides and whoopee! We have a proper civil war…nice
one Charles.
father’s lover…we
can’t talk about it
pike men
Civil War (1621-1649)
avaliers…it means a man who swaggers)
House of Lords
† House of Commons
† Puritans
Large landowners
† Merchants
Church officials
† Townspeople
The King
† More urban , more
Parliament had access to lots of money…they taxed everyone!
The biggest advantage they had was a man called Oliver Cromwell
A Puritan, Cromwell was MP for Cambridge… and no fun!
In 1644 a combination of Roundheads (Parliament’s soldiers) , Scots and
Cromwell’s new cavalry beat the pants off the Cavaliers, or Royalists, at
Marston Moor.
Parliament were so ‘stoked’ they asked Cromwell to build a new elite army of
professional soldiers – he did…the New Model Army
The men were paid the amazing sum of 10p a day (10 cents)…wow!
They were a tough bunch even though they were trained not to drink (alcohol),
swear, rape or pillage.
They never lost a battle
Charles I saw the writing on the wall and fled to Scotland for safety…
The Scots promptly filled their sporrans by selling him to Parliament
Oliver Cromwell
Outside Parliament…today
New Model Army Soldier’s
Cromwell and Parliament now
tried the king for treason
And, then in 1649 at a huge
public ceremony, severed
Charles I’s head off!!!
Not many people know this…but, when in
1813Charles’s coffin was rediscovered,
Sir Henry Halford did an autopsy on
the body and stole poor Charles’s fourth
For years he used to horrify his dinner
guests by using it as a salt holder.
Queen Victoria…no sense of
humor…ordered him to put it back in the
Do you think Ollie was
happy to be rid of this ‘pain
in the neck’?
No longer 5 foot, Charles alas, got smaller.
He was no longer ‘head’ of state
So, what have we learned about so far about where the power to GOVERN
lies in England?
Let’s sum up the following 40 years really quickly…Cromwell dies, Charles’s son
Charles is asked to come back and be king…he is a serious player and fun loving
guy who eventually dies, his brother James becomes king…oh no, he’s Catholic,
kick him out!
They shop around Europe for a king
Not just any king…they wanted someone who would listen and let parliament have
the final say.
This king had to agree that parliament was the main power in England…the big
cheese, numero uno, the cat’s meow! Where to find one?
In the Netherlands…William and Mary of Orange…he was know to his friends as
Minute maid)
He agreed to a set of demands that laid out what he could do and the
Because James had been kicked out of England without a shot being fired and
no one was killed the Brits called this bloodless event “The GLORIOUS
Let’s take a look at these rights called THE BILL OF RIGHTS and see if
you recognize any
The English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights of 1689
Largely they are a statement of certain positive rights that its authors
considered that citizen/subject of a CONSTITUTIONAL
MONARCHY ought to have.
It asserts the Subject's right to petition…a subject can ask the government to
correct, or repair, an injustice.
Subject's have a right to bear arms for defense.
In fact you will find all of the English Bill of Rights in the first eight
amendments to the U.S. Constitution…please bring in a copy of the
American Bill of Rights, (the first 10 amendments of the constitution), you will
glue it into your notebook.
In addition to those rights in the English Bill of Rights do not forget the
rights contained in the Magna Carta…
Habeas Corpus Act
– Any unjustly imprisoned persons could obtain a writ of habeas corpus
compelling the govt. to explain why he had lost his liberty.
Make a comparison…Venn diagram, etc…of the English and American Bills of Rights
St. James's Palace
Buckingham Palace
English Bill of Rights [1689]
Main provisions:
1. The King could not suspend the operation of laws.
2. The King could not interfere with the ordinary course of justice.
3. No taxes levied or standard army maintained in peacetime without
Parliament’s consent.
4. Freedom of speech in Parliament.
5. Sessions of Parliament would be held frequently.
6. Subjects had the right of bail, petition, and freedom from excessive
fines and cruel and unusual punishment.
7. The monarch must be a Protestant.
8. Freedom from arbitrary arrest.
9. Censorship of the press was dropped.
10. Religious toleration.
And here it is…
no I did not spill tea on it…