File - Katrina's E


Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


Karen Peterson, SLCC COMM 1020-005



Becoming a Public Speaker a.

Getting a Vital Life Skill i.

Will give you an unmistakable edge in like and will lead to greater confidence and satisfaction. ii.

Skills employers seek are: the ability to work in a team, leadership, communication skill, problem-solving skills, and strong work ethics. iii.

Enhance you career as a student. iv.

Finding new opportunities for civic engagement. b.

The Classical Roots of Public Speaking i.

The practice of giving speeches was known as “Rhetoric” also called “Oratory”. c.

Learning to Speak in Public i.

Draw on Conversational Skills ii.

Draw on Skills in Composition iii.

Develop an Effective Oral Style iv.

Become an Inclusive Speaker d.

Public Speaking as a Form of Communication i.

Dyadic Communication happens between two people, as in a conversation. ii.

Small Group Communication involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another. iii.

Mass communication occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people who usually are not present with the speaker, or who are part of such an immense crowd that there can be little or no interaction between speaker and listener. e.

Public Speaking as an Interactive Communication Process i.

The source, or sender, is the person who creates a message. ii.

Encoding, the process of converting thoughts into words. iii.

The recipient of the source’s message is the receiver, or audience. iv.

Decoding, the process of interpreting the message. v.

Feedback, the audience’s response to a message, can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally.



From A to Z: Overview of a Speech a.

Analyze the Audience b.

Select a Topic c.

Review the Topic in Light of Audience Analysis d.

Determine the Speech Purpose e.

Compose a Thesis Statement f.

Develop the Main Points g.

Gather Supporting Materials h.

Separate the Speech into its Major Parts i.

Introduction ii.

Body iii.

Conclusion i.

Outline the Speech i.

Coordinate points ii.

Subordinate points j.

Consider Presentation Aids k.

Practice Delivering i.

Practice your vocal delivery ii.

Be aware of your nonverbal delivery

Managing Speech Anxiety a.

Identify what Makes you Anxious i.

Lack of positive experience b.

Feeling Different i.

Being the center of attention c.

Pinpoint the Onset of Nervousness i.

Pre-preparation anxiety ii.

Preparation anxiety iii.

Pre-performance anxiety iv.

Performance anxiety d.

Use Proven Strategies to Boost Your Confidence i.

Prepare and practice ii.

Modify Thoughts and Attitudes iii.

Visualize success e.

Activate the Relaxation Response i.

Briefly meditate ii.

Use stress-control breathing a.

Stage one b.Stage two f.

Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety i.

Practice Natural Gestures ii.

Move as you Speak

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


5. g.

Learn from Feedback

Ethical Public Speaking a.

Respect Audience Values b.

Use Your Rights of Free Speech Responsibly c.

Contribute to Positive Publix Discourse d.

Observe Ethical Ground Rules e.

Avoid Offensive Speech f.

Avoid Plagiarism a.

Orally acknowledge your sources b.

Citing quotations, paraphrases, and summaries g.

Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking

Listeners and Speakers a.

Recognize That We Listen Selectively b.

Listen Responsibly c.

Strive for the Open Exchange of Ideas d.

Anticipate the Common Obstacles to Listening i.

Minimize external and internal distractions ii.

Guard against scriptwriting and defensive listening iii.

Beware of laziness and overconfidence iv.

Work to overcome cultural barriers e.

Practice Active Listening f.

Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning g.

Offer Constructive and Compassionate Feedback

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


6. Analyzing the Audience a.

Adapt to Audience Psychology: Who Are Your Listeners? i.

Appeal to listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, and values ii.

Gauge listeners’ feelings toward the topic a.

If the topic is new to listeners b. If listeners know relatively little about the topic c.

If listeners are negatively disposed toward the topic d. If listeners hold positive attitudes toward the topic e.

If listeners are a captive audience iii.

Gauge listener’s feelings toward you as the speaker


8. iv.

Gauge listener’s feelings toward the occasion b.

Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics i.

Age ii.

Ethnic or cultural background iii.

Socioeconomic status iv.

Income v.

Occupation vi.

Education vii.

Religion viii.

Political affiliation ix.

Gender c.

Adapt to Cultural Differences i.

Consider cross-cultural values ii.

Focus on universal values d.

Interview and Survey Audience Members i.

Conduct Interviews ii.

Survey the audience iii.

Consult published sources e.

Assess the Speech Setting and Context

Selecting a Topic and Purpose a.

Decide Where to Begin i.

Steer clear of overused and trivial topics ii.

Try brainstorming to generate ideas b.

Identify the General Purpose of Your Speech c.

Narrow Your Topic d.

Form a Specific Speech Purpose e.

Compose a Thesis Statement i.

From source to speech ii.

Postpone development of main points

Developing Supporting Material a.

Offer Examples b.

Share Stories c.

Draw on Testimony d.

Provide Facts and Statistics i.

Use statistics accurately ii.

Use frequencies to indicate counts iii.

Use percentages to express proportion iv.

Use averages to describe typical characteristics v.

Present statistics ethically e.

Refer Orally to Your Sources

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015

9. Locating Supporting Material a.

Locate Secondary Sources i.

Books ii.

Newspapers and Periodicals iii.

Government Publications iv.

Digital Collections v.

Reference Works a.

Encyclopedias b. Almanacs c.

Biographical resources d. Books of quotations e.

Poetry collections f.

Atlases g. From source to speech vi.

Weblogs and social news sites b.

Generating Primary Sources: Interviews and Surveys i.

Conduct Interviews ii.

Conduct surveys c.

Evaluate Sources for Trustworthiness d.

Record References as Your Go

10. Finding Credible Sources on the Internet a.

Use a Library Portal to Access Credible Sources i.

Access journal articles ii.

Access books iii.

Access popular magazines b.

Be a Critical Consumer of Information c.

Distinguish among Information, Propaganda, Misinformation, and

Disinformation d.

Make the Most of Internet Search Tools i.

Distinguish among types of search engines ii.

Consult subject (web) directories iii.

Use search engines and subject directories for different purposes iv.

Beware of commercial factors e.

Conduct Smart Searches i.

Create effective keywords ii.

Search by subject heading iii.

Use advanced search f.

Record Internet Sources

11. Citing Sources in Your Speech a.

Alert Listeners to Key Sources Information

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015 i.

Establish the source’s trustworthiness ii.

Avoid a mechanical deliver a.

Vary the wording b. Lead with the claim b.

Overview of Source Types with Sample Oral Citations i.

Book ii.

Reference work iii.

Print article iv.

Online-only magazine, newspaper, journal v.

Organization web site vi.

Weblog (“Blog”) vii.

Television or radio program viii.

Online video ix.

Testimony (lay or expert) x.

Interview and other personal communication c.

Properly Citing Quoted, Paraphrased, and Summarized Information


12. Organizing the Speech a.

Use Main Points to Make Your Claims i.

Use the purpose and thesis statements as guides ii.

Restrict the number of main points iii.

Restrict each main point to a single ideal b.

Use Supporting Points to Prove Your Claims c.

Pay Close Attention to Coordination and Subordination d.

Strive for a Unified, Coherent, and Balanced Organization e.

Use Transitions to Give Direction to the Speech i.

Use transitions between main points a.

From point to point ii.

Use transitions between supporting points iii.

Use previews and summaries as transitions

13. Selecting an Organizational Pattern a.

Arranging Speech Points Chronologically b.

Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal (Cause-Effect) Pattern c.

Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern d.

Arranging Speech Points topically


Arranging Speech Points Using the Narrative Pattern

14. Outlining the Speech a.

Plan on Creating Two Outlines b.

Use Sentences, Phrases, or Key Words c.

Create a Working Outline First d.

Prepare a Speaking Outline for Delivery i.

Indicate delivery cues ii.

Practice the speech


15. Developing the Introduction and Conclusion a.

Preparing the Introduction i.

Gain audience attention a.

Use a quotation b. Tell a story pose questions c.

Offer unusual information d. Use humor e.

Refer to the audience f.

Refer to the occasion ii.

Preview the topic and purpose iii.

Establish credibility as a speaker iv.

Preview the main points v.

Motivate the audience to accept your goals b.

Preparing the Conclusion i.

Signal the end of the speech and provide closure ii.

Summarize the key points iii.

Reiterate the topic and speech purpose iv.

Challenge the audience to respond v.

Make the conclusion memorable

16. Using Language a.

Prepare Your Speeches for the Ear i.

Strive for simplicity ii.

Make frequent use of repetition iii.

Use personal pronouns b.

Choose Concrete Words and Vivid Imagery

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


Offer vivid imagery ii.

Use figures of speech c.

Choose Words That Build Credibility i.

Use words appropriately ii.

Use words accurately iii.

Use the active voice iv.

Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language d.

Choose Words That Create a Lasting Impression i.

Use repetition to create rhythm ii.

Use alliteration for a poetic quality iii.

Experiment with parallelism

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


17. Choosing a Method of Delivery a.

Strive for Naturalness and Enthusiasm b.

Select a Method of Delivery i.

Speaking from manuscript ii.

Speaking from memory iii.

Speaking from memory iv.

Speaking impromptu v.

Speaking extemporaneously

18. Controlling the Voice a.

Adjust Your Speaking Volume b.

Vary Your Intonation c.

Adjust Your Speaking Rate d.

Use Strategic Pauses e.

Strive for Vocal Variety f.

Carefully Pronounce and Articulate Words g.

Use Dialect (Language Variation) with Care

19. Using the Body a.

Pay Attention to Body Language i.

Animate your facial expressions ii.

Maintain eye contact iii.

Use gestures that feel natural iv.

Create a feeling of immediacy


Dress appropriately b.

Practice the Delivery i.

Focus on the Message ii.

Plan ahead and practice often


20. Speaking with Presentation Aids a.

Select an Appropriate Aid i.

Props and models ii.

Pictures iii.

Graphs and charts iv.

Audio, video, and multimedia b.

Decide How to Present the Aid i.

Computer-generated aids and displays ii.

Overhead transparencies iii.

Flip charts iv.


21. Designing Presentation Aids a.

Keep the Design Simple b.

Use Design Elements Consistently c.

Select Appropriate Typeface Styles and Fonts d.

Use Color Carefully e.

Consider Subjective Interpretations of Color

22. A Brief Guide to Microsoft PowerPoint a.

Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show b.

Develop Effective Slides c.

Avoid technical Glitches d.

Using Microsoft PowerPoint i.

Presentation options a.

The home tab b. The design tab c.

Blank slide layout ii.

View options iii.

Masters iv.

Transitions and animation effects

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


Entering and editing text vi.

Inserting objects a.

Pictures b. Clip art c.

Tables and worksheets vii.

Inserting videos and sounds viii.

Avoiding copyright infringement a.

From slide show to presentation ix.

Running the presentation


23. Informative Speaking a.

Gain and Sustain Involvement i.

Use audience analysis ii.

Present new and interesting information iii.

Help listeners follow along b.

Subject Matter of Informative Speeches c.

Decide How to Communicate Your Information i.

Definition ii.

Description iii.

Demonstration iv.

Explanation d.

Take Steps to Reduce Confusion i.

Use analogies to build on prior knowledge ii.

Demonstrate underlying causes iii.

Appeal to different learning styles e.

Arrange Points in a Pattern

24. Persuasive Speaking a.

Focus on Motivation b.

Balance Reason and Emotion c.

Stress Your Credibility d.

Target Listeners’ Needs e.

Encourage Mental Engagement f.

Construct Sound arguments i.

Identify the nature of your claims a.

Claims of fact

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015

b. Claims of value c.

Claims of policy ii.

Use convincing evidence iii.

Address the other side of the argument iv.

Use effective reasoning v.

Avoid fallacies in reasoning g.

Address Culture i.

Core values ii.

Cultural norms iii.

Cultural premises iv.

Emotions h.

Strengthen Your Case With Organization i.

Problem-solution pattern ii.

Monroe’s motivated sequence a.

Step 1: Attention b. Step 2: Need c.

Step 3: Satisfaction d. Step 4: Visualization e.

Step 5: Action iii.

Comparative advantage pattern iv.

Refutation pattern i.

Identify the Disposition of the Audience

25. Speaking on Special Occasions a.

Speeches of Introduction b.

Speeches of Acceptance c.

Speeches of Presentation d.

Roasts and Toasts e.

Eulogies and Other Tributes f.

After-Dinner Speeches g.

Speeches of Inspiration


26. Preparing Online Presentations a.

Apply Your Knowledge of Face-to-Face Speaking b.

Understand the Unique Demands of Virtual Delivery i.

Review the equipment

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


Focus on vocal variety iii.

Provide superior visual aids c.

Plan for the Delivery Mode i.

Real-time presentations ii.

Recorded presentations d.

Online Presentation Platforms i.

Video ii.

Podcasts and vodcasts iii.

Webinars e.

Online Presentation Planning Checklist f.

Focus on Goals g.

Plan on Assuming Dual Roles h.

Center Disagreements around Issues i.

Resist Groupthink j.

Adopt an Effective Leadership Style i.

Set goals ii.

Encourage active participation iii.

Use reflective thinking

28. Presenting in Teams a.

Working in Teams i.

Analyze the audience and set goals ii.

Assign roles and tasks iii.

Establish transitions between speakers iv.

Consider the presenters’ strengths v.

Coordinate the presentation aids vi.

Rehearse the presentation several times b.

Presenting in Panels, symposia, and Forum i.

Panel discussions ii.

Symposia iii.


29. Business and Professional Presentations a.

Sales presentations i.

Audience ii.

Organization b.

Proposals i.

Audience ii.

Organization c.

Staff Reports i.

Audience ii.


Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015


Progress Reports i.

Audience ii.

Organization e.

Crisis-Response Presentations i.

Audience ii.

Organization f.

In the Classroom: Case Study Presentation

Katrina Tonuga

July 26, 2015