What to Expect in

What to Expect in…
ENC 1101 - Writing and Rhetoric I
Things you will definitely do:
 Write 4-6 papers in MLA format
 Learn and use the three Rhetorical Appeals
 Write a Rhetorical Analysis
 Write a Literacy Narrative
 Compose a Works Cited page
 Use In-Text Citations
 Research and Choose Valid Sources
 Avoid Plagiarism at All Costs
What do you mean by a
Everyone in college refers to essays as papers:
“I can’t go to Ultra, I have to write a paper.”
“Have you finished that paper for the Underwater Basket
Weaving course?”
“I have two exams and a paper due in 5 minutes, give me
that latte!”
 A paper is any type of writing assignment consisting of anywhere from
2 to 20+ pages
 Usually, your papers in ENC 1101 will consist of 5-6 pages each, double
spaced, not including the Works Cited page
Formatting your Document
Each individual course has strict
rules as to how to format your
papers. These are discipline
specific– some courses use APA,
others MLA, and there are
countless other formatting styles.
APA and MLA are the most
common, with MLA being used
for Writing and Rhetoric.
Each style has specific rules for
spacing, font, font size, and
document elements.
MLA Format –
General Guidelines
 Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11inch paper.
 Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible 12pt size font (Times,
Tahoma, or Arial). Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation
 Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
 Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA
recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar
five times.
 Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper righthand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin.
 Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only
when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis.
Formatting the First Page
• Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested.
• In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your
instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use doublespaced text.
• Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place
your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard
capitalization), not in all capital letters.
• Double space between the title and the first line of the text.
• Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name,
followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively
with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush
with the right margin.
Sample of First Page - MLA
Source: Purdue OWL
Let’s format our First Page
What is rhetoric?
 Aristotle defines rhetoric as:
--the ability, in each particular case,
to see the available means of
 In simple terms, rhetoric is the art of
speaking or writing EFFECTIVELY.
The Three
Ethos – appeal
to credibility
Pathos – appeal
to emotions
Logos – appeal
to logic
 Ethos is related to the English word
ethics and refers to the trustworthiness
or credibility of the speaker/writer.
 Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy
because when we believe that the speaker
does not intend to do us harm, we are
more willing to listen to what s/he has to
 Ethos is a person’s credibility with a given
 Pathos is Greek for emotion or suffer
and is related to the words pathetic,
sympathy and empathy.
 Whenever you accept a claim based on
how it makes you feel without fully
analyzing the rationale behind the claim,
you are acting on pathos.
 They may be any emotions: love, fear,
patriotism, guilt, hate or joy.
 The Greek word logos is the basis for the
English word logic.
 Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the
intellect, including statistics, facts, data, and
logical information or evidence.
 Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and
pathos, but academic arguments rely more on
logos: there will be logical chains of reasoning
supporting all claims.
The Appeals can also be
looked at in this way
Rhetorical Appeals in
 The Rhetorical Appeals are very common in
modern-day advertising; they persuade
viewers using credibility, emotion, and logic.
 As you watch these commercials, think
about which rhetorical appeal is most
prevalent in each.
 Be able to comment on how the appeal is
used to achieve a goal.
We are half
way through
Writing the Rhetorical Analysis
Anne Roiphe's "Confessions of a Female
Chauvinist Sow" first appeared in the magazine New
York in 1972. In this essay Roiphe aims to convince
her readers that women must put faith in the idea that
they are equal to men, not superior. "Women who want
equality must be prepared to give it and believe in it
. .. ." Personal anecdotes, contrast, and comparison
are techniques Roiphe skillfully uses to create a
strong, convincing essay.
Writing the Literacy Narrative
The biggest obstacles that I have encountered in my
ability to read and write are my learning disabilities. I
went through 18 years of my life before they were
identified, and they have caused me so much frustration. I
had no idea why other kids could read out loud so well and I
couldn’t. I had no idea why it took me so long to read a few
pages of a book when other kids were almost done with the
chapter. I had no idea why I couldn’t even sit down to write
a paper when other kids were doing their essays in the span
of a couple hours.
Composing your
Works Cited page
 Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the
end of your research paper. It should have the same oneinch margins and last name, page number header as the
rest of your paper.
 Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words
Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center
the words Works Cited at the top of the page.
 Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces
between entries.
 Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by
0.5 inches to create a hanging indent.
Sample of
Works Cited page
1 inch
 The easiest way to write a
citation is using a website like
KnightCite.com or
 EasyBib is a nicer website, but
only allows for MLA style
 KnightCite isn’t as nicelooking, but it has both MLA
and APA options; make sure
to select the correct one.
Let’s create a Works Cited
page together…
Using In-Text
MLA format
follows the
method of
citation. For
 Wordsworth stated
that Romantic poetry
was marked by a
"spontaneous overflow
of powerful feelings"
 Romantic poetry is
characterized by the
"spontaneous overflow
of powerful feelings"
(Wordsworth 263).
 Wordsworth
extensively explored
the role of emotion
in the creative
process (263).
and Choosing
 Your school’s library and
online databases are a
great place to start your
 Familiarize yourself with
the library and how to
access online databases on
campus and at home.
 When choosing sources,
make sure they are
credible. This can also
mean that they have been
published within the last
10 years.
• turning in someone else's work as your own
• copying words or ideas (paraphrasing) from
someone else without giving credit
• failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
• giving incorrect information about the source
of a quotation
• changing words but copying the sentence
structure of a source without giving credit
• copying so many words or ideas from a source
that it makes up the majority of your work,
whether you give credit or not
Your Assignment
Othello is about much more than the marriage of a white woman to a
black man.
It is about two people from different worlds, who are in love and who
marry without parental blessing, and about a love relationship between
an older man and a younger woman.
It is about a husband who, believing he is doing the right thing, murders
his wife.
It is about the successful struggle of evil to corrupt good, and about good
misplacing its trust and recognizing evil too late.
If Othello was charged with Desdemona’s murder, would he be
found innocent or guilty? Look at the time it was written in (not
today’s) and find evidence to support your belief.
Your Assignment
 Write a paper in which you answer the aforementioned
 Your paper must be written in MLA Style
 Your paper must be 3-5 pages in length not including the
Works Cited page. You must include appeals to ethos,
pathos, and logos, and a firm stance on either innocence or
 You must also have a minimum of four sources, one being
Othello by William Shakespeare, with the other three
sources each displaying either ethos, pathos, or logos.
Final Draft – 3 Grades
Adheres to length requirement (3-5 pages)
Addresses topic and answers prompt
Takes a position on innocence or guilt
Demonstrates mastery of the play’s content and plot
Uses proper grammar, spelling, punctuation
MLA Formatting – 1 Grade
Evidence is properly cited using MLA Style
Formatting adheres to MLA Style
Uses correct, legible font (Times, Tahoma, Arial)
Uses 1 inch margins all around
Correct indentation, spacing, and paragraph use
Works Cited – 2 Grades
4 sources properly cited using MLA
Each source uses either ethos, pathos, or logos
Each rhetorical appeal is addressed
Sources are credible
Formatting is in MLA style
Citations match in-text citations
ROUGH DRAFT with Works Cited due:
April 14th (A) ~ April 15th (B)
That day there will be a Group Edit.
April 20th (A) ~April 21st (B)
Need Help?
• Google “The Purdue OWL” for formatting help
• Use KnightCite.com or CitationMachine.net for
citation help
• Go to http://education.fiu.edu/plagiarism/ for
more information on Plagiarism
In college:
• Make an appointment at the Writing Center
• Use the library/online databases to do your
• Contact your professor