Learning Goal: Important molecules to life
Carbohydrates Gives energy
Lipids Stores energy
Proteins Key processes in body; rxns
Nucleic Acids Stores Genetic Information
Water SMEBR
ATP Energy maker
Water = universal solvent
Key dissolver for ionic compounds (salts) and
sugars, amino acids and proteins
Transports ions
in/out of cell
M = Makes Bonds
Polarity – uneven distribution of
Hydrogen bonds
Not as strong
Cohesion (same)
Adhesion (different)
E = Environment
71% of Earth is water
60% human is water
3 days without water = death
B = Buffer for temperature
Can absorb or contain heat
In chemical reactions
R = Reactions
Essential in chemical reactions
Reactant or Product
Glycolysis (processing energy)
Why is water so important?
Recall with your neighbor what
SMEBR stands for:
Cell Theory – How did cells get
Anton Van Leewenwook
Robert Hooke
The Wacky History of Cell Theory
What are the 3 key ideas of cell theory?
Cell Theory – How did cells get
 The Wacky History of Cell Theory
 What are the 3 key ideas of cell theory?
1. All organisms are composed 1 or more cells
2. Basic unit of organization for living things
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell Organelles
 http://www.shellyssciencespot.co
Two types:
 Prokaryotes
 Eukaryotes
 Bacteria, small organisms
 More complex organisms
 No nucleus
 Has a nucleus
Eukaryotic Cells – Discuss with table to
determine 3 similarities & 3 differences
Cell Organelles
 Chapter 7.2 Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Wall
 Only found surrounding plant, fungal and bacterial cells
 Made of cellulose
 It’s rigid and stiff
 Provides support and protection for the cell
 It’s like the wall that surrounds a city
Cell Membrane
 Surrounds all cells
 In a plant cell, it’s beneath the cell wall
 In animal cells, it’s the outer boundary (made of cholesterol)
 Gives the cell
 Protection
 Controls the movement of material in/out of the cell
 Gives support
 Maintains conditions of the cell
 Similar to the border patrol of a country
 Found in plant and animal cells
 Centrally located in the cell
 Controls cell activities
 Contains the genetic information (DNA)
 It’s like the control center
 Found in all cells
 Clear, thick, gelatinous material
 Located beneath the cell membrane
 Supports and protects cell organelles
Golgi Apparatus
 Found in plant and animal cells
 Looks like a flattened stack of membranes
 Processes and packages molecules such the carbon compounds to be
transferred throughout the cell
 It’s similar to a Post Office
 Found in all cells
 Can be small individual molecules or attached to the E.R.
 Synthesizes proteins
 Smallest organelles
 It’s like the brick yard that supplies the city with the necessary materials
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Found in plant and animal cells
 Arrangement of a reticulum flattened sheets
 Transports materials throughout the cell
 Two types
 Smooth (no ribosomes)
 Rough (lined with ribosomes)
 It’s similar to a highway
 Found in plant and animal cells
 Football shaped with membranes within
 Breaks down sugar molecules to create ATP
 It’s similar to a power plant
 Found in plant and animal cells
 Plants: very large and only a few
 Animals: small and numerous
 Store food, water and waste
 It’s similar to a storage unit or warehouse
 Found in animal and some plant cells
 Small and round shaped
 Breaks down molecules to be used for other things
 Breaks down old cell parts
 It’s similar to a recycling center
 Found in plant cells and some bacteria
 Oval shaped
 Green color due to the chlorophyll
 Takes in energy from the sun to create sugar that is processed as food
 It’s similar to solar panels on a building
Quiz Yourself!
 Go to the following webpage to quiz yourself on the structures in the cell
and the function:
 http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/cell_model.htm