The extension of a
nation’s power over other lands.
on this definition, is the
United States an imperialistic
country in 2014? Explain.
The Big Picture
► U.S.
foreign relations took a
new turn at the end of the
19th century. Global
competition for empire led
the U.S. into war with Spain
and intervention in Latin
America. The U.S. forged a
new role as an emerging
world power.
► What
inspired imperialist
► How did the U.S. gain lands?
► What caused the SpanishAmerican War?
► How did actions within America
push us into war?
► How did the U.S. treat conquered
or acquired lands?
I can. . .
 Evaluate, take, and defend positions on
the various U.S. foreign policies in the
late nineteenth and early twentieth
 Analyze the causes and consequences
of the Spanish-American War
 Identify and evaluate the factors that
influenced U.S. imperialism in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries and the ensuing debate over
Foreign Policy in 1800's:
Monroe Doctrine
James Monroe in his
annual message to Congress
declared that the Old World and
New World had different
systems and must remain
distinct spheres
4 points:
► (1) The U.S. would not interfere in the internal
affairs of or the wars between European powers.
► (2) The U.S. recognized and would not interfere
with existing colonies and dependencies in the
Western Hemisphere.
► (3) The Western Hemisphere was closed to future
► (4) Any attempt by a European power to oppress
or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere
would be viewed as a hostile act against the
United States.
► Analogy:
a dog marking his territory!
70 years later, what led to
the U.S. quest for more of
an empire ?
►1. Economic Interests
Industrial Revolution
Close of the Frontier
►2. Military Needs
Alfred Thayer Mahan
► To protect trade
► To gain new markets
► Therefore,
we will also
Need fueling stations…
EX: Hawaii
Example of European
 The scramble for territory
►4. Ideology
 American Nationalism
 Josiah Strong’s Our Country
► Then
this race of unequaled energy, with all the
majesty of numbers and the might of wealth
behind it-the representative, let us hope, of the
largest liberty, the purest Christianity, the highest
civilization-having developed peculiarly aggressive
traits calculated to impress its institutions upon
mankind, will spread itself over the earth. If I read
not amiss, this powerful race will move down upon
Mexico, down upon Central and South America,
out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa
and beyond. And can any one doubt that the
result of this competition of races will be the
"survival of the fittest?"
First Acquisitions
► Alaska
 Purchased from Russia (1867) $7 mill (3
►Sec. of State William Seward
 Reduce foreign possessions in NA
 Vast natural resources
 Statehood (1959)
 Importance
►Resources: timber, fur, fish, coal, oil,
►Polar air routes (eventually!)
►Close to Russia (air bases, later on)
First Acquisitions
► Hawaii
 Acquired (Taken!)
►Supply and fueling station
►Attracted missionaries
►American investors
 Statehood (1959)
 Importance
►Sugar and pineapples
►Pearl Harbor
How it happened
► Wealthy
white planters gained
influence and power within Hawaiian
society due to prosperous sugar sales
to the U.S.
► A group plots against the king and
forces him to sign a new constitution
in 1887 – the Bayonet Const. (Pearl
Harbor becomes ours)
► 1890 – when the economy went south
they try to restore control (U.S. ousts
Liliuokalani in 1893; annexed in 1898)
A cartoon in Puck,
December 1, 1897,
imagines the
annexation of Hawaii
by the United States
as a shotgun
The minister,
President McKinley,
reads from a book
entitled Annexation
Policy. The Hawaiian
bride appears to be
looking for a way to
escape. Most
Hawaiians did not
support annexation.
The SpanishAmerican War
An American Empire
in the Making
Simmering Unrest in Cuba
was a Spanish possession
►Since 1868 they had launched a
series of revolts
►Spain was weakening
►Jose Marti
 Exiled in NY, he forms the Cuban
Revolutionary Party (1892) and
leads a revolt in 1895
The Butcher
 Camps set
up for
Why U.S. interest?
► Geographic
proximity – 90
miles away
► Economic interests - $100
mil. in trade; $50 mil.
► Humanitarian concerns –
deaths of especially women
and children due to hunger
and disease
The Media’s Role
► American’s
were already
 American tradition of Revolution
 Plus it gets a European nation out
► But the “information” they received
concerning Weyler fed it
► Two competing media moguls are
 William Randolph Hearst – NY Journal
 Joseph Pulitzer – NY World
Yellow Journalism
stories and large
news stories
They sent
reporters, but
relied on Cuban
The de Lome Letter
McKinley was
criticized by
Minister to
the U.S.
► Cuban spy
acquires it
► Published in
the NY
In February
The Explosion of
the Maine
The U.S.S. Maine had been sent to
Havana Harbor on a visit (protection;
show of force)
Feb. 15, 1898 – the Maine mysteriously
explodes: 260 killed
Yellow journalists go into high gear
But no declaration of war until April
War in the Philippines
► The
first action took place here
because that is where the
Spanish fleet was
► Adm. George Dewey sent here by
Asst. Sec. of the Navy Teddy
► Dewey held his fire (nearest
resupply was 7,000 miles away)
► We had new steel-hulled and iron
► Took only hours
War in Cuba
Amendment –
we will not take
you over
U.S. military not
 Wool
 Bad beef
 Hodge-podge
of soldiers
War in Cuba
Rough Riders
– led by
Cavalry unit –
not really;
horses left in
America or
Consequences of
the War
► Treaty
of Paris
 Spain gives up claims to Cuba
 Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to
 Philippines to the U.S. for $20
► It was a “Splendid Little War”
► But cost $250 million and 2,000
lives (most from yellow fever)
Arguments for Annexing the
Duty to spread values and culture
 Christianize the Filipinos
► Economic and strategic importance
 Trade routes to China and the rest of
the Asian markets
 Get it before it falls to a European
Opponent’s Views
It’s a violation of our own Declaration
of Independence (the idea of self
African Americans didn’t want to
export oppression
It would open the door to new
It would undercut the American
American Rule
Annexation in 1899
Rebellion led by
Emilio Aguinaldo
 He had already
set up a new
government and
himself president
 He was prepared
to fight
American Rule
The Insurrection
 3 years by U.S. accounts; until 1913
by the Filipinos
 4,000 U.S. deaths
 200,000+ Filipino deaths (about
20,000 military; the rest “as a result
of the war and disease”) Some
estimates as high as 1 mil.
 They call it the Philippine-American
American Rule
► Charges
of brutality and torture
on both sides
► Many famous Americans were
outspoken against this conflict
 American Anti-Imperialist
League formed
 William Jennings Bryan, Mark
Twain, Andrew Carnegie
► 1.
Who are the individuals in this
political cartoon? Look at the
entire cartoon.
► 2. What is this cartoon trying to
express to the viewer?
 What is your evidence? What
are the people doing? Why?
► 3. What would you title this
political cartoon?