http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =ekytTpFy96o Imperialism ►Definition: The extension of a nation’s power over other lands. ►Based on this definition, is the United States an imperialistic country in 2014? Explain. The Big Picture ► U.S. foreign relations took a new turn at the end of the 19th century. Global competition for empire led the U.S. into war with Spain and intervention in Latin America. The U.S. forged a new role as an emerging world power. Focus ► What inspired imperialist activity? ► How did the U.S. gain lands? ► What caused the SpanishAmerican War? ► How did actions within America push us into war? ► How did the U.S. treat conquered or acquired lands? I can. . . Evaluate, take, and defend positions on the various U.S. foreign policies in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Analyze the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War Identify and evaluate the factors that influenced U.S. imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the ensuing debate over imperialism Foreign Policy in 1800's: Monroe Doctrine ►President James Monroe in his annual message to Congress declared that the Old World and New World had different systems and must remain distinct spheres 4 points: ► (1) The U.S. would not interfere in the internal affairs of or the wars between European powers. ► (2) The U.S. recognized and would not interfere with existing colonies and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere. ► (3) The Western Hemisphere was closed to future colonization. ► (4) Any attempt by a European power to oppress or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as a hostile act against the United States. ► Analogy: a dog marking his territory! 70 years later, what led to the U.S. quest for more of an empire ? ►1. Economic Interests Industrial Revolution Close of the Frontier ►2. Military Needs Alfred Thayer Mahan ►A Navy: ► To protect trade ► To gain new markets ► Therefore, we will also Need fueling stations… EX: Hawaii ►3. Example of European Nations The scramble for territory ►4. Ideology American Nationalism Josiah Strong’s Our Country ► Then this race of unequaled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of wealth behind it-the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty, the purest Christianity, the highest civilization-having developed peculiarly aggressive traits calculated to impress its institutions upon mankind, will spread itself over the earth. If I read not amiss, this powerful race will move down upon Mexico, down upon Central and South America, out upon the islands of the sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of races will be the "survival of the fittest?" First Acquisitions ► Alaska Purchased from Russia (1867) $7 mill (3 cents/acre) ►Sec. of State William Seward Reduce foreign possessions in NA Vast natural resources Statehood (1959) Importance ►Resources: timber, fur, fish, coal, oil, gold ►Polar air routes (eventually!) ►Close to Russia (air bases, later on) First Acquisitions ► Hawaii Acquired (Taken!) ►Supply and fueling station ►Attracted missionaries ►American investors Statehood (1959) Importance ►Sugar and pineapples ►Pearl Harbor How it happened ► Wealthy white planters gained influence and power within Hawaiian society due to prosperous sugar sales to the U.S. ► A group plots against the king and forces him to sign a new constitution in 1887 – the Bayonet Const. (Pearl Harbor becomes ours) ► 1890 – when the economy went south they try to restore control (U.S. ousts Liliuokalani in 1893; annexed in 1898) A cartoon in Puck, December 1, 1897, imagines the annexation of Hawaii by the United States as a shotgun wedding. The minister, President McKinley, reads from a book entitled Annexation Policy. The Hawaiian bride appears to be looking for a way to escape. Most Hawaiians did not support annexation. The SpanishAmerican War An American Empire in the Making Simmering Unrest in Cuba ►Cuba was a Spanish possession ►Since 1868 they had launched a series of revolts ►Spain was weakening ►Jose Marti Exiled in NY, he forms the Cuban Revolutionary Party (1892) and leads a revolt in 1895 The Butcher ► Spain responds with Valeriano Weyler Camps set up for civilians ►Some 200,000 die Why U.S. interest? ► Geographic proximity – 90 miles away ► Economic interests - $100 mil. in trade; $50 mil. invested ► Humanitarian concerns – deaths of especially women and children due to hunger and disease The Media’s Role ► American’s were already sympathetic American tradition of Revolution Plus it gets a European nation out ► But the “information” they received concerning Weyler fed it ► Two competing media moguls are key William Randolph Hearst – NY Journal Joseph Pulitzer – NY World Yellow Journalism ► ► ► Scandalous stories and large shocking illustrations Sensationalized news stories They sent reporters, but relied on Cuban sources The de Lome Letter President McKinley was openly criticized by Spain’s Minister to the U.S. ► Cuban spy acquires it ► Published in the NY ► ► Journal In February The Explosion of the Maine ► ► ► ► The U.S.S. Maine had been sent to Havana Harbor on a visit (protection; show of force) Feb. 15, 1898 – the Maine mysteriously explodes: 260 killed Yellow journalists go into high gear But no declaration of war until April 25th War in the Philippines ► The first action took place here because that is where the Spanish fleet was ► Adm. George Dewey sent here by Asst. Sec. of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt ► Dewey held his fire (nearest resupply was 7,000 miles away) ► We had new steel-hulled and iron ships ► Took only hours War in Cuba ► ► Teller Amendment – we will not take you over U.S. military not prepared: Wool uniforms Bad beef Hodge-podge of soldiers War in Cuba ► ► ► Rough Riders – led by Teddy Roosevelt Buffalo soldiers Cavalry unit – not really; horses left in America or drowned Consequences of the War ► Treaty of Paris Spain gives up claims to Cuba Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to U.S. Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million ► It was a “Splendid Little War” ► But cost $250 million and 2,000 lives (most from yellow fever) Arguments for Annexing the Philippines Duty to spread values and culture Christianize the Filipinos ► Economic and strategic importance Trade routes to China and the rest of the Asian markets Get it before it falls to a European power ► Opponent’s Views ► ► ► ► It’s a violation of our own Declaration of Independence (the idea of self government) African Americans didn’t want to export oppression It would open the door to new immigrants It would undercut the American worker American Rule ► ► Annexation in 1899 Rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo He had already set up a new government and proclaimed himself president He was prepared to fight American Rule ► The Insurrection 3 years by U.S. accounts; until 1913 by the Filipinos 4,000 U.S. deaths 200,000+ Filipino deaths (about 20,000 military; the rest “as a result of the war and disease”) Some estimates as high as 1 mil. They call it the Philippine-American War American Rule ► Charges of brutality and torture on both sides ► Many famous Americans were outspoken against this conflict American Anti-Imperialist League formed William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie ► 1. Who are the individuals in this political cartoon? Look at the entire cartoon. ► 2. What is this cartoon trying to express to the viewer? What is your evidence? What are the people doing? Why? ► 3. What would you title this political cartoon?