Chapter 7 Notes Hawaii The Last King of Hawaii - Kalakaua • Bayonet Constitution- July 1887 British and US businessmen forced the King to sign at gunpoint, severely restricted his power and deprived most Hawaiians of the votes. Gave Pearl Harbor to US. • Queen LiliuokalaniBecame Queen in 1891 after death of king, restored monarchy, overthrown by rebels • Sanford B. Dole- sugar tycoon, 1st president of the Republic of Hawaii • Sphere of influence- geographic area where an outside nation exerts special or economic/political control Alaska • Purchased March 30, 1867 for US by Andrew H. Seward to keep up with European scramble for colonies and to expand to Pacific Ocean • (questions) • Jose Marti- leader in Cuba, exiled 1878 • Yellow journalism- sensationalist reporting • De Lome Letter- Spain’s minister to US called President McKinley “weak and catering to rabble” USS Maine • Feb. 15, 1898 – mysteriously blew up in Havana, Cuba harbor killing 266 on board. Headline was inciting enemy but was not true: Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain! • Precipitated the SpanishAmerican War • George Dewey- Commander of US Navy’s Asiatic squadron, assigned to attack Spanish fleet in Philippines • Emilio Aguinaldo- leader of rebel army of Filipino patriots who fought for independence. 1st president of Philippines • Rough Riders-Cavalry regiment organized by Teddy Roosevelt in SpanishAmerican war Spanish-American War • 1868- Cubans revolted against Spanish rule. Spain then exiled leaders of revolt. Forced thousands into camps controlled by Spanish army. 1/3 of Cubans died in camps. • US declared war on Spain following the sinking of the USS Maine and because of US desire to grant Cuba independence. • Spain gave up all claims to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and control of Philippines for $20 million • (questions) • Platt Amendment- limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations. Gave US right to intervene in Cuban affairs • Protectorate- a country under control and protection of another country • Foraker Act- 1900 established that US would appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislature, voters appoint lower house • Porfirio Diaz- Dictator of Mexico 1877-1910, brought order to Mexico. Jailed opponents, no freedom of press, used army to keep peace. Used money from foreign investors for his benefit and few Mexicans received any. • Francisco Maderoopponent to Diaz, wealthy landowner but reformer, jailed then fled to Texas to declare Mexican revolution and himself president. • Emiliano ZapataLed band of rebels, Zapatistas, seized by force • Francisco “Pancho” Villa- Led revolts in northern Mexico against Diaz. • Victoriano Huerta- Commander of government overthrew Madero 1913 and executed him. Declared himself president but four rebel armies fought him. • John J. Pershing- General sent to Mexico to capture Pancho Villa, who had gained popularity. With 10,000 troops couldn’t find him. Led to Mexican resentment of US. Search called off with the beginning of WWI. The Search for Pancho Villa US and Mexican relations deteriorate • Tampico Incident: USS Dolphin went ashore for supplies in Mexico, Port of Tampico. US were arrested by soldiers of Huerta. Apologized but US wanted more – led to military force allowed. • Battle of Veracruz: US Marines seized city of Veracruz, expected to seize without bloodshed. 17 US and 300 Mexicans died.