Matter—Properties and Change Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Section 3.2 Changes in Matter Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides. Exit Section 3.1 Properties of Matter • Identify the characteristics of a substance. • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties. • Differentiate among the physical states of matter. density: a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume Section 3.1 Properties of Matter (cont.) states of matter physical property solid extensive property liquid intensive property gas chemical property Vapor Plasma Most common substances exist as solids, liquids, and gases, which have diverse physical and chemical properties. Substances • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. • Matter is everything around us. • Matter with a uniform and unchanging composition is a pure substance. • Particles of matter are always in motion. • The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases. States of Matter • The physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter. • Solids are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume. Very Low Kinetic Energy • Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container. Low Kinetic Energy States of Matter (cont.) • Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container. Very High Kinetic Energy • Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is normally a solid or liquid at room temperature. • Plasma very high kinetic energy- particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-). • gas-like, variable shape & volume Physical Properties of Matter • A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition. Physical Properties of Matter (cont.) • Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of substance present, such as… • Intensive properties are independent of the amount of substance present, such as… Extensive vs. Intensive • Examples: – boiling point intensive – volume extensive – mass extensive – density intensive – conductivity intensive Chemical Properties of Matter • The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances is called a chemical property. • describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity – Examples: Observing Properties of Matter • A substance can change • Chemical properties can change with specific environmental conditions, such as temperature and pressure. Physical vs. Chemical • Examples: – melting point physical – flammable chemical – density physical – magnetic physical – tarnishes in air chemical Section 3.1 Assessment Density is what kind of property? A. atomic B. intensive C. extensive D C A 0% B D. dependent A. A B. B C. C 0% 0% 0% D. D Section 3.1 Assessment What defines a gas? A. Gases have a definite volume and shape. 0% A D. Gases have a definite shape but no definite volume. 0% B C. Gases have no definite volume or shape. A B C D 0% 0% D A. B. C. D. C B. Gases have a definite volume but take the shape of their container.