Introducing Empathetic Practice in Physical Education

Introducing Empathetic Practice
in Physical Education
The National PETE Conference Las Vegas
October 6, 2012
Tony Monahan, PhD
Queensborough Community College
City University of New York
Regular physical activity, even at moderate levels, is known to
reduce many chronic health problems (USDHHS, 2000).
• The USDHHS (2000) has called on public education to
identify and address the causes of physical inactivity
and poor health.
• PE is the one school subject that is directly devoted
to physical activity and is potentially the best venue
to combat chronic diseases and promote healthy
lifestyles among students (DeCorby, et al., 2005).
• PE should be considered a critical contributing
component to a complete education (NASPE, 2001).
Benefits of Physical Activity
Physical activity, even at moderate levels
• reduces the risk of CHD, hypertension, colon cancer
and diabetes
• increases bone strength and lean muscle, decreases
body fat
• enhances psychological well-being, reduces
depression symptoms
• increases brain function and nervous system
(Jensen, 2005, Sosa, 1995, USDHHS, 2000).
Traditional PE Does Not Benefit Everyone
“Traditional PE” - Historically, PE has focused on
calisthenics, skill proficiency and competitive
success (Carlson, et al, 1995).
Top activities in PE (mostly team sports) do not
match up with the most popular adult activities
(mostly fitness-related) (Corbin 2002).
Cultural Transmission / Banking Education – “My
way or the highway.” Students expected to be
passive receivers of the teacher’s information (Freire,
1983, Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972).
Traditional PE Does Not Benefit Everyone
 Traditional PE favors those students who are physically skilled
while often alienating those who are not (King, 1991, Virshup, 1999,
Westcott, 1992).
 “Old-style PE excludes kids who aren’t natural athletes. It
tends to focus on games where the least skilled students are
the first to be eliminated, and thus branded losers, and fails to
build skills that kids can actually use” (Graham, as cited in Virshup, 1999, p.
 This creates an unequal educational situation where only the
minority of elite students succeeds while lesser skilled
students become disillusioned (Carlson, et al, 1995).
 Most PE teachers are athletically elite (Dewar & Lawson (1984).
Sociometric Status
• The degree which children are liked or disliked by their peers.
• A child’s likeability level by peer group ranges from popular (well liked by
peers) to rejected (least liked by peers).
• Children who possess strong athletic competence usually rank highly in
Sociometric status.
• Children displaying poor athletic skills are often ranked low in Sociometric
• Poorly skilled children are often ridiculed in physical activity situations.
• Humiliated children may withdraw or isolate themselves from physical
activity which could further separate them socially from their peers.
Adapted from Dunn, et al, 2007
Major factors affecting Sociometric status
• Athletic competence
• Physical appearance
• Social skills
(Dunn et al, 2007)
Learned Helplessness
• A perception of futility regardless of what one does, which could lead to a
perceived lack of interest in performances and tasks and unwillingness to
learn new skills (Martinek & Griffith, 1994, Walling & Martinek, 1995).
Belief in low ability
Expectation of failure
Reduction of effort/ Giving up
Avoidance of public demonstration of low ability
(Adapted from Robinson, 1990).
What is Empathy?
• Empathy involves an affective mode of
understanding, an ability to perceive and share the
emotions of another.
• Hoffman’s definition: “an affective response more
appropriate to someone else’s situation than one’s
own” (1987, p. 48).
• In order to better facilitate those who have
experienced difficulty or failure in PE, it will be
necessary for PE teachers to relate to students with
physical abilities quite different than their own.
Mirror Neurons
• Biological basis for empathy
• Provide a simulation of what others are feeling
• Allows a person to experience an emotional investment when
observing others
We are hard-wired for empathy
Developmental Empathy
• Global Empathy: Response to distress (Infant’s cry)
• Egocentric Empathy: Awareness without the ability
to feel beyond self (Change the channel!)
• Situational Empathy: Increased awareness,
responsive reaction (Can be shaped or narrowed)
• Transformational Empathy: Thorough
capacity(Empathize with entire groups of people)
Adapted from Hoffman, 1987
How Can Empathetic Practice Help Students in PE?
1. Know your students: names, interests, tendencies, social
group, attentiveness, level of attention needed
2. Pay attention: observe body language and facial expressions
(over 90% of communication is non-verbal)
3. Use your mirror neurons to build an emotional attachment
(empathic understanding of the student’s point of view
4. Have positive regard for all students: desire success for all
5. Encourage positive peer interactions: avoid situations that
can lead to student alienation or learned helplessness
• Although most PE teachers are athletically skilled,
most of their students will not be athletic
• The main goal of PE is to lay the foundation of
physical fitness
• PE teachers can avoid damaging social and
psychological situations by understanding the
dynamics of Sociometric status and learned
• Empathy allows the teacher to understand from the
students’ perspective
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