Matters of the mind
學號:B9902073
姓名:黃世惠
Take it easy
Brain structure
Test your common sense in brain
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Which area controls our movement?
A:cerebellum
Which area controls our vision?
A: occipital Lobe
Which area controls our pulse?
A:medulla
The reasons cause brain injuries
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Genes
Drugs
Physical illness
Environmental poison
injury
Food
Chemotherapy
Aging and so on.
Symptoms of brain injuries
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neurocognitive deficits
mental handicap
personality changes
Coma
persistent vegetative state
mental handicap and so on
• The film depicts
記
憶
拼
圖
paragraph 1
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Subarachnoid/ˌsəb-ə-ˈrak-ˌnȯid/ 蛛網膜下的
Hemorrhage /ˈhɛmərɪdʒ/出血
Rupture/ˋrʌptʃɚ/破裂
Aneurysm/ˋænjə͵rɪzəm/動脈瘤
Pericallosal胼胝體旁
• summary:F
paragraph 2、3
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Ignition/ɪgˋnɪʃən/點火
Vicinity/vəˋsɪnətɪ/近鄰
lock up關起來
Summary:e
Misdemeanor/͵mɪsdɪˋminɚ/輕罪
Stereotype/ˋstɛrɪə͵taɪp/使成為陳規
Summary:d
paragraph 4
• Clomipramine可洛米普明:it is used in
depression andobsessive-compulsive disorder.
• Valpromide丙戊醯胺:Medicine of neural
disease, it is used in the treatment of epilepsy
癲癇and some affective disorders. It is an
anticonvulsant 抗痙攣too.
paragraph 4
• Paroxetine帕羅西汀: it is used in treat
depression, panic attacks, social anxiety
disorder, or premenstrual月經期前dysphoric
煩躁不安 disorder.
• Bromazepam博爾靜錠: Medicine of anxiety
disorder, insomnolence 失眠, emotion barrier,
asthma, stomach ulcer, and duodenal ulcer.
• Summary:a
paragraph 5
• Lesion/ˋliʒən/損傷
• Relapse/rɪˋlæps/復發
• Wisconsin Card Sorting test:The participant is
given a stack of additional cards and asked to
match each one to one of the stimulus cards.
paragraph 5
• Stroop test:When the name of a color is
printed in a color not denoted by the name,
naming the color of the word takes longer and
is more prone to errors than when the color of
the ink matches the name of the color.
paragraph 5
• Trail-making The goal of the subject is to finish
the test as quickly as possible, and the time
taken to complete the test is used as the
primary performance metric.
• WAIS-R:adult IQ tests
paragraph 5
• Semantic/səˋmæntɪk/語義的
• Phonemic/foˋnimɪk/音位的
• SPECT:a nuclear medicine tomographic
imaging technique uses gamma rays. it is able
to provide true 3D information.
• Summary:g
paragraph 6
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Detrimental/dɛtrəˋmɛnt!/有害的
Premorbidg生病前
Psychopathy/saɪˋkɑpəθɪ/精神病
Summary:c
Main idea
• (A) a weird man who stole cars repeatedly.
• (B) a man who has some brain damage during
an operation leads a totally different life and
behave oddly.
• (C) Neuropsychological tests fail to find the
answer to the weird syndrome.
Supporting Information
• 1. A normal man began to behave strangely after brain
surgery.
• 2. He repeatedly stole cars and as a result went to
prison.
• 3. His motivation wasn’t criminal; he stole cars under
effects of alcohol and depression.
• 4. His failed to maintain steady employment because of
the hemorrhage, and neither medication nor
psychotherapy work.
• 5. Clinical tests showed nothing unusual except he had
slight damage to one part of the brain.
• 6. Brain damage may cause dramatic change in a man’s
character.
Questions for Discussion
• How should we treat the person with
dramatic character change?
• Do people regard brain injury as excuse to
avoid their responsibility? How do you face it?
• How did the man feel about borrowing other
people’s cars?
supplementary
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Litigation/ˋlɪtəˋgeʃən/訴訟
Neurosis/njʊˋrosɪs/神經症
Manifest/ˋmænə͵fɛst/表明
GCS
Glasgow Coma Scale
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Eyes
Verbal
Does not
open eyes
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3
Opens eyes in
Opens eyes
response to
in response to
painful stimuli
voice
Makes no Incomprehensible
sounds
sounds
Utters
inappropriate
words
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Opens eyes
spontaneously
Confused,
disoriented
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6
N/A
N/A
Oriented,
converses
N/A
normally
Abnormal
Motor
Makes no
Extension to
painful stimuli
flexion to
painful
movements
(decerebrate
stimuli
response)
(decorticate
response)
Flexion /
Localizes
Withdrawal to
painful stimuli
painful
stimuli
Obeys
commands
supplementary
• Generally, brain injury is classified as:
Severe, with GCS ≤ 8
Moderate, GCS 9 - 12
Minor/Mild, GCS ≥ 13.
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Amnesia/æmˋniʒɪə/健忘
prognosis /prɑg'nosɪs/ (對病情的)預後
Concussive/kənˋkʌsɪv/震盪性的
Debilitated/dɪˋbɪlə͵tetɪd/操勞過度的
Sequella後遺症
Idea
• Because the effects of TBI are unique to the
injured individual, it is difficult to compare
cases or make generalized assessments about
the value of types of TBI claims, making the
evaluation of a claim involving mild traumatic
brain injury a challenging task for attorneys.
Each case will require careful consideration of
factors that may affect the ultimate outcome.
Supporting Information
• Post-concussive syndrome for patients with
mild TBI includes physical, cognitive and
emotional symptoms which vary greatly for
each patient.
• No typical pattern showing how the patient is
influenced by TBI.
• Many factors affect the value of each TBI case.
Careful consideration of factors is required.
question
• Do you think we can accurately differentiate
the brain injury by the points in text?
• Do we need to tolerant brain injury people if
they do the wrong thing?