Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists: 1-Articles of Confederation too weak. 2-Need a strong national government to run the nation. 3-Liberties that could be included in a bill of rights are covered in state constitutions. Anti-Federalists: 1- States would no longer have power to print money. 2- National government given too much power. 3- The Constitution should have a bill of rights. What were the Federalist Papers? A series of 85 newspaper articles presenting arguments to persuade people [especially New Yorker’s] to vote [ratify] for the Constitution. Needed 9/13 to ratify the new constitution. Written by Hamilton [51 articles], Madison  and John Jay , Madison and Hamilton  Federalist #10 What is a faction? …a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community” Why are factions to be feared? ”…the public good is disregarded in the conflicts of rival parties, and that measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.“ How does Madison propose we deal with factions? How to Deal with Factions 1-Destroying the liberty which is essential to its existence “LIBERTY IS TO FACTION WHAT AIR IS TO FIRE.” 2-By giving to every citizen the same opinions and the same passions. If factions do exist, how do you control their effects? In a pure democracy, a minority faction poses little threat because it can be easily outvoted and suppressed. A majority faction, however, through popular vote, has the power to completely control the government. Therefore, modifications must be made to democratic government to keep the majority from oppressing minority groups or acting against the good of the nation. Small of Large Republic? A large republic will consist of a greater variety of parties, so that one will less likely be able to suppress the others. Also, a greater number of votes would be required to elect each representative. This is preferable because it ensures that politicians cannot use underhanded tricks to secure positions as easily as they could if elected by a smaller body of voters, [small republic] thus Increasing the likelihood that only the best candidates will be elected Why are factions better controlled in a republic? A republic, could preserve popular government while allowing a measure of consideration for the rights of the minority. A republican government is run by representatives chosen by the people, rather than by the people themselves. Representatives, if wise and just, are more likely to vote with the interests of the people [want to get reelected], rather than their own selfish passions. •The three main arguments of Federalist 51 Separation of Powers Rationale “It is evident that each department [3 branches] should have a will of its own; and consequently should be so constituted that the members of each should have as little agency [influence] as possible in the appointment of the members of the others” Popular Sovereignty Rationale “….all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people. Checks and Balances Rationale “But the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department, consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others” Analyze the following quotes: “If men were angels, no government would be necessary” “You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself” “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition” It is of great importance in a republic, not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers; but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part.