Pitcher Plant (left)
Venus Fly Trap (above)
Plant Adaptations to Land
Cuticle: Waxy covering on outside of plant
leaves to prevent water loss
Stomata: Small openings in leaves that
allows for gas exchange between plant and
Vascular vs. Nonvascular Plants
• Obtain nutrients and water
through vascular tissue
• This tissue transports
materials much faster than
osmosis and diffusion
Nonvascular Plants
• Obtain nutrients and water
through osmosis and diffusion
Nonvascular Plants
General Characteristics
 Nonvascular plants are plants that
do not have a real xylem or phloem so
each cell is responsible for absorbing
its own water and nutrients on its own
Usually small, which enables most
materials to move within them easily
 Often found growing in damp,
shady areas
 Contain rhizoids instead of roots,
which are branched threads that
absorb water & also used to anchor
the plants
Mosses (above), Hornworts, & Liverworts
Seedless Vascular Plants
 Seedless vascular plants have leaves, stems and
true roots.
 These plants also have cells that contain
chlorophyll, the chemical that allows
Club Moss (above) strobilus
Fern (below)
 Vascular tissue consists of the xylem, which
transports minerals and water up through the roots.
The xylem cells have rigid cell walls that help
support the plant.
 The phloem transports organic nutrients
throughout the plant
 Seedless vascular plants depend heavily on the
wind for spore dispersal.
Vascular Seed Plants
General Characteristics
 All contain seeds that contain one
or more cotyledons
 All have a variety of different
adaptations for seed dispersal
 Flowering plants would be
considered a vascular seed plant
 Plants in this group can be a few
cm to over 100 m, live a few days to
1000s of years, and be extremely
Tree Tidbits
Pygmy Pine
• Conifer
• Height = 8cm
• Branch Diameter = 5mm
• Great Basin
Bristlecone Pine
• Age = 4,842 years old
General Sherman
• Giant Sequoia
•Height = 275 ft
• Circumference = 108 ft
• Mass = 1,910 tons
• Age = 2300-2700 years