European Nations Settle North America Chapter 4, Section 2 Main Idea Several European nations fought for control of North America, and England emerged victorious. English settlers in North America left a legacy of law and government that guides the United States today. Introduction Spain was successful in colonizing the Americas. Other European nations wanted to obtain colonies, too. Remember the Treaty of Tordesillas? Other European nations ignored it. Other European nations set out to build their own empire. Result? Struggle for North America Competing Claims in North America Magellan found a trade route to Asia through the Pacific Ocean. Spain claimed this route that went around the south tip of South America. Other European nations wanted to find an easier and more direct route. If it existed, it would be highly profitable. No route? Established colonies in North America instead. European Settlements Explorers Establish New France Giovanni da Verrazzano Italian working for France Searching for trade route to Asia through the Pacific. Instead, he discovered New York harbor. New France By the 1700’s, France controlled most of the Midwest and Eastern Canada. A Trading Empire France had a large empire but it was sparsely populated. 65,000 people Many French colonists had no desire to build towns or raise families. Catholic priests sought to convert Native Americans. Fur trade became France’s main economic activity. French were concerned with making money off the land, not gaining territory, like the English. The English Arrive in North America The English were inspired by the explorations of the French and the Spanish. 1606 – King James sent a company to found an English colony. Four months later, the settlers landed in Virginia and named the land Jamestown. The Settlement of Jamestown The colony’s start was disastrous. Settlers were more interested in finding gold than planting crops. Seven out of every ten people died of hunger, disease or battles with Native Americans. Jamestown eventually became successful, especially after the discovery of tobacco. It became a profitable cash crop. Puritans Create a “New England” Pilgrims founded a second English colony Plymouth Puritans sought religious freedom from England’s Anglican Church. Establish Massachusetts Bay. Wanted a model community that would set an example for other Christians to follow. This community was full of families, unlike Jamestown. The Dutch Found New Netherland Henry Hudson – English but in service of the Netherlands. In search of the northwest trade route to Asia. Instead, found three waterways. Hudson River, Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. The Dutch claimed this region (around New York). Establish fur trade with the Iroquois Indians. Area became known as New Netherland. The Struggle for North America English v. Dutch English felt Dutch territory separated their territory. Duke of York drove out the Dutch and renamed it New York. With the Dutch gone, English controlled entire Atlantic coast. England Battles France English became greedy and decided to push farther west. Result? Collided with France’s territories. Dispute over land claims in the Ohio Valley led to a war between the British and French. French and Indian War Why was it called the French and Indian War? French and Indian War British defeated the French in 1763. French surrendered their territory. British now had control of the eastern half of North America. Native Americans Respond French and Dutch cooperated mostly with Native Americans. England’s objective was to populate the land and force off the natives. Disease - Europeans brought new diseases to America. More destructive than weapons. Small Pox – dropped a tribe from 24,000 to 750 Replaced natives with Africans. • Who gained control of the northwest territory by 1763? • In 1754, who held the most area between the Mississippi River and Rio Grande? ▫ 1763?