Group Conflict-Jigsaw Slides

Sherif Boys Camp Studies
Participants and basic procedure?
• 10-12 year old boys
• Naturally formed groups (e.g., friendships developed)
• Boys separated into 2 groups (e.g., Rattlers)
Sherif (cont.)
~ Group Development ~
What key aspects of group development occurred rather quickly?
• Leaders selected
• Nicknames chosen
• Division of labor established
Norms emerged
• Sanctions developed
Sherif (cont.)
Establishment of group conflict
How was this done?
Introduction of competition (e.g., baseball, football, tug-of-war)
Was it successful? What happened?
Results --Open hostility to out-group members (yelling, fighting,
name calling)
Greater in-group solidarity
Sherif (cont.)
What attempt was found to be ineffective?
Increased social contact between group members
Other commonly used questionable strategies for reducing
group conflict?
• Presentation of accurate/favorable information about the other group
• Bringing leaders together (view of leaders can be diminished)
What Strategy Was Shown to be Effective?
Solution -Working on common goals; something everyone has to work on
together (e.g., break in water main, car problems, $ for movie)
How common is the solution used by Sherif ?
What strategies are frequently employed?
(Conflict between countries, racial imbalance in schools, etc.)
The Nature of Prejudice (1954)
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
Key Factors
• Support of Authority
• Equal Status Contact
Work on Common Goals
Is it possible to have an in group without an out group?
Allport's Scale of Prejudice and Discrimination
(How they are manifested in society)
1) Antilocution: Talking negatively about minority groups (e.g., jokes); hate speech
2) Avoidance: (Often leads to isolation and exclusion)
3) Discrimination: Denying opportunities/services (e.g.,education, jobs, health care)
4) Physical Attack: Vandalism, violence (e.g., bombings, wars)
5) Extermination: Elimination of minority group (e.g., Holocaust, Ethnic
cleansing in Bosnia, genocide in Rwanda )
Jigsaw Classroom
What was the motive for developing the Jigsaw Classroom?
What was the basic procedure?
Each person is given information to present to the group that is
valuable to find a solution to a given problem or assignment
Timeframe --45 minutes, 3 times/week
Specific Jigsaw Procedure (10 Steps)
1) Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups (ensure diversity in terms of
gender, ethnicity, race, ability)
2) Appoint one student from each group as the leader (e.g., initially, most
3) Divide lesson into 5-6 segments. For example Eleanor Roosevelt: (1) Her
childhood, (2) Her family life with FDR and their children, (3) Her life after FDR
contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life
and work after FDRs death
4) Give each student one segment to learn (ensure students have direct access
only to their own segment)
5) Allow students time to read over their segment at least twice
Specific Jigsaw Procedure (10 Steps)
6) Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each jigsaw
group join other students assigned to the same segment
7) Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups
8) Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others
in the group to ask questions for clarification
9) Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having
trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate
intervention. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that
students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but
really count
10) After the session, give a quiz so that students realize that this counts
Jigsaw Classroom Results?
• Increased liking for classmates
• Increased self-esteem
• Increased liking for school
• Decreased negative ethnic stereotypes
• Higher scores on standardized tests
Additional Jigsaw Classroom Results?
• Greater participation in school activities
• Greater ability to role-take (empathize with others)
• Different attributions for success & failure (i.e., more
external attributions for failures of others; avoidance of
fundamental attribution error)
Jigsaw Continued?
How are most school environments arranged today?