Sherif Boys Camp Studies Participants and basic procedure? • 10-12 year old boys • Naturally formed groups (e.g., friendships developed) • Boys separated into 2 groups (e.g., Rattlers) Sherif (cont.) ~ Group Development ~ What key aspects of group development occurred rather quickly? • Leaders selected • Nicknames chosen • Division of labor established • Norms emerged • Sanctions developed Sherif (cont.) Establishment of group conflict How was this done? • Introduction of competition (e.g., baseball, football, tug-of-war) Was it successful? What happened? Results --Open hostility to out-group members (yelling, fighting, name calling) Greater in-group solidarity Sherif (cont.) What attempt was found to be ineffective? Increased social contact between group members Other commonly used questionable strategies for reducing group conflict? • Presentation of accurate/favorable information about the other group • Bringing leaders together (view of leaders can be diminished) What Strategy Was Shown to be Effective? Solution -Working on common goals; something everyone has to work on together (e.g., break in water main, car problems, $ for movie) How common is the solution used by Sherif ? What strategies are frequently employed? (Conflict between countries, racial imbalance in schools, etc.) Allport The Nature of Prejudice (1954) Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination Key Factors • Support of Authority • Equal Status Contact • Work on Common Goals Is it possible to have an in group without an out group? Allport's Scale of Prejudice and Discrimination (How they are manifested in society) 1) Antilocution: Talking negatively about minority groups (e.g., jokes); hate speech 2) Avoidance: (Often leads to isolation and exclusion) 3) Discrimination: Denying opportunities/services (e.g.,education, jobs, health care) 4) Physical Attack: Vandalism, violence (e.g., bombings, wars) 5) Extermination: Elimination of minority group (e.g., Holocaust, Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia, genocide in Rwanda ) Jigsaw Classroom What was the motive for developing the Jigsaw Classroom? What was the basic procedure? Each person is given information to present to the group that is valuable to find a solution to a given problem or assignment Timeframe --45 minutes, 3 times/week Specific Jigsaw Procedure (10 Steps) 1) Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups (ensure diversity in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, ability) 2) Appoint one student from each group as the leader (e.g., initially, most mature) 3) Divide lesson into 5-6 segments. For example Eleanor Roosevelt: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with FDR and their children, (3) Her life after FDR contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after FDRs death 4) Give each student one segment to learn (ensure students have direct access only to their own segment) 5) Allow students time to read over their segment at least twice Specific Jigsaw Procedure (10 Steps) 6) Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment 7) Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups 8) Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification 9) Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count 10) After the session, give a quiz so that students realize that this counts Source: http://www.jigsaw.org/steps.htm Jigsaw Classroom Results? • Increased liking for classmates • Increased self-esteem • Increased liking for school • Decreased negative ethnic stereotypes • Higher scores on standardized tests Additional Jigsaw Classroom Results? • Greater participation in school activities • Greater ability to role-take (empathize with others) • Different attributions for success & failure (i.e., more external attributions for failures of others; avoidance of fundamental attribution error) Jigsaw Continued? How are most school environments arranged today? Implications?