PIA 2501 HRD: Training and Education for Development The “Chicken and Egg” Question Human Resource Development versus Economic and Social Change Which comes first? Thus the Issue: (Since 1976) Which Comes First? The Administrative Challenge/capacity It is very hard to change public sector structures or NGO focus NGOs are easier but It takes five years to educate a manager Human Resource Development Recruitment Discipline/Termination Motivation Education and Training Of these Recruitment The Only Game in Town Recruitment: Three Models Patronage and Political Appointments vs. Representation vs. Education (merit) Recruitment By what standards? Recruitment Representation vs. merit Problem of the visible positions and the use of language Professional Services: foreign service, military, police, technicalprofessional cadres each represent a separate set of issues The Debate Representation “Representative Bureaucracy” Affirmative Action Ethnic Arithmetic “Africanization” or Malaysianization” The Transformation Affirmative Action and the Representation Model Active vs. Passive change Inducements to move people to the private sector Contracting Out as an inducement model Recruitment: Representation-merit vs. representation, continued There are both political and economic demands made during and after a transition Recruitment Political, Merit and Representation Issues are all legitimate The key issue: Can bureaucratic structures be used to promote socioeconomic change and if so how should they be trained What is the legitimate role for political set aside jobs (Schedule Two in U.S.) Patronage, But… HRD: The Transformation (1) Issues of discipline, termination The life sinecure and problems of dead wood (2) The role of participation in the HRD Development process: Self-discipline Public and private sector professional associations, political parties, and trade unions Grass Roots and Bottom Up Planning 3) The public vs. the NGO and the private sectors: who wins the HRD struggle? Shift of Focus HRD: The Transformation Motivation: Theory x vs. Theory y Motivation Theory X: Basic Needs: Money Time in Motion Frederick Taylor, Taylorism and Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor and the Hawthorne Factory Floor Motivation Theory Y Hawthorne Experiments- Chicago Need to feel Human and part of social system Consulting, Sensitivity Training, “Suggestion Boxes” Maslov’s Hierarchy of Needs (Theory z) First Level: Survival Needs--poverty culture and political uncertaintyViolation of the social contract Second level: Non-economic motivations- Social and egocentric Third Level: Self-actualization Egohighest level Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow The Full Hierarchy HRD Focus: Training vs. Education Education: Pre-Service Basic Education Higher Education Training: In-Service Higher Education: The Great Faith Leap Training vs. Education Pedagogy- Childhood Learning Andragogy- Adult Centered Learning as Training Knowledge vs. Skills Differences: Child to Adult Terms Human Resource Development Social Development Health Education Communities and Networks Terms Management Development Long term disjointed learning process Individual absorbs education and training through out his/her career Overseas, University Education and Training Courses Professional Education Models Public Management and Non-Profit Management follow Business School Models Terms Management Education Classroom orient education Focus on cognitive learning and knowledge acquisition Not immediately applicable Terms Management Training Skills oriented Job-Specific and organizationally related Aimed at increasing individual’s ability to do his or her job Training Methods Designer Training vs. Off the shelf Facilitator vs. Trainer Participatory vs. Lectures Approaches to Training Formal Training Lectures Case Studies Simulation Approaches to Training On-the job Training Coaching Mentoring Job Rotation Learning Cycle Active Experimentation Concrete Experiences Abstract Generalization Observation And Reflection On-the Job Behavioral Influences Physical -climate -office -Food Personal Characteristics -Intelligence -Culture Biological, etc Environmental And Interpersonal -Colleagues -Superiors -Subordinates, etc. Behavior Characteristics Social -Educational -Ideology -Social and Religious Norms Approaches to Training Action Training/Organizational Development (OD) Field Analysis Process Observation Problem Diagnosis Field Agents and Training Approaches to Training Non-Formal Training Support Groups Professional Associations Study Circles Travel and site Visits Sources of Training International Institutes and Universities Local Universities Government Institutes Private Institutes Regional Institutes/Third Country Training Graduate School of Public and International Affairs Problems International Boondoggles Local Universities- Educate rather than train The NIPA (National Institute of Public Administration) ProblemDead End Problems Bridging Training- Limited Nuts and Bolts and Tunnel Vision Paper Collection Bounded Knowledge The Transformation Human Resource development planning: The Importance of a BASE LINE planning Rule of Thumb: The Wider the target the less precise the planning Base Line Planning Macro-planning- Country Wide Sectoral Planning-single sector, eg. agriculture Functional Planning- engineers Sub-national Planning- local level Institutional planning or organizational- single unit Skills analysis- focus on individual Human Resource Development Project vs. program management planning Implementation, institutional capacity and assessment Focus of HRD Efforts Human Resource Development, Development Management, Planning and Policy The Focus of Education Public administration vs. development administration Potential for development administration The role of NGOs and PVOs social movements, unions and cooperatives Problems Expatriate Consultants- Lack Knowledge All trainers- Rote Training, Off the Shelf Ethnocentric Skills (U.S. or U.K.) dominate Francophone or Spanish- Secondary Human Resource Development: Who Pays International Involvement: Scholarships, Training, Institutional Development Part of Donor Activities: Technical Assistance and Training Books of the Week Albert Memmi, Colonizer, Colonized Daniel Bergner, In the Land of Magic Soldiers Albert Memmi and Daniel Bergner Oprah’s Book of the Week? Discussion of Books PIA 2501 TEN MINUTE BREAK Supplementary Material HRD/Training Education and Training: Knowledge Base The problem of: bounded knowledge no short cuts to education The key to the short-term experience: designer training Organizational Development Public Sector Higher Education System Temptations of “Bridging” Training Short 3-6 Week Training Program, in-country or overseas Can substitute for the Experience of a University Education Training best focused on skills not complex systems and knowledge Temptations of “Bridging” Training Extent to which the administrative culture reflects a high degree of paternalism One needs flexible people, with flexible minds Temptations of Bridging Training The new administrators in Transitional states First vs. second generation: The bridging generation can block the next generations Problem of Bounded Knowledge The Concept Need for gradual retirement of existing Administrators and a staggered bridge Problem of Bounded Knowledge The time factor Administrative culture Professional and technical skills and "the art of management" Issue of debate and discussion within the public service (problem of conformity) Criticism of tunnel vision Mentality of the old nuts and bolts mechanisms within the context of a centralized state Education and Training: Education: Entry Requirements The MPA style degree? The role of University programs Education and Training The Prospects and Limits of training: Problems of management skills Basic Techniques and Processes (e.g. Computers and Quantitative Skills) How much Consciousness Raising? Development Management vs. Management Development The debate over Human Resource Development Chicken and Egg Redux Education and Training: Education in Public Management, Personnel, Financial Management, Management Information Systems (Masters Degree as a Professional Degree) Public Policy Analysis and Issue Areas Public Administration Political Institutions and Processes Macro and Micro Economics Development Policy and Management (NGOs) Training and Education The role of overseas training and education: Problems of technical assistance Role of donors and the policy process Donor provision of planners and administrators The attractiveness of Bridging Training The Brain Drain Issue Human Resource Development Background The Problem Nature of the “promote socio-economic change bureaucracy” Can it? Legacy: The nature of the stratified Civil Service Segregated or class based systems Elitist Generalist, legal or technical Extractive? Law and Order Human Resource Development Role of the state in economic development Nature of the mixed economy Management of public corporations Role of regulation trust busting Reputation of the African economic model Asian, European and Latin American comparisons (South Africa as a NIC) The Transformation Management Systems: Definitions and Types Routine administration Praetorian administration Scaffolding Administration Development mobilization Administration non-routine Human Resource Development, Development Management, Planning and Policy The nature of the state decisionmaking process: planning (and = Planning vs. budgets) Privatization--administration and contracts Deconcentration vs devolution national vs. local National Regional Local Human Resource DevelopmentIssue Institutional Development, The Weberian model- Fit of existing institutions for development Mass of Regulations, routines and the hierarchy: SOPs Absence of judgment, discretion and creativity How suitable for Development Human Resource Development Background The civil service "spirit”; problems of morale Pattern of indigenization, localization and equal access Replacement of long service, old regime or expatriates with inexperienced, untrained, often "clerical" assistants or politicos with no professional skills Human Resource Development Background The civil service "spirit”; problems of morale Role of the graduates Issue of equating authority with age Experience vs. the young's feeling of blockage from rapid promotion next generation of University Sensitivity to Expatriates Sensitivity to continuing influence of foreign “expatriates” in technical assistance and international organizations Symbols of Colonialism or Dependence Expatriate mentality and tendency to outside of the formal chain of command Human Resource Development Background Issues Negative image of Government Administration Need to shift from law and order administration to development values Willingness to accept non-governmental and civil society organizations Question: Use of bureaucracy development to mobilize people for economic change and provide for socio-activist, "organic" civil service, not a hierarchical, mechanistic one?