Principles of Child Development

Principles of Child
How children view the world
Theories of Child Development
 Psychologists
define theory as a guide
to help explain behavior.
 Many theories are available about how
children learn and process.
 Erickson, Piaget, Vygotsky and Gardner
12 Principles of Child
Development and learning are complex
and no one theory is sufficient.
 Principles should be considered when
making decisions about children
 General principles taken from a review
of the early childhood literature
Principle 1: Interrelatedness
 Development
in one domain influences
and is influenced by development in
other domains
Principle 2: Orderly Sequence
 Development
occurs in a relatively
orderly sequence, with later abilities,
skills, and knowledge building on those
already acquired
Principle 3: Varying Rates
 Development
proceeds at varying rates
from child to child as well as unevenly
within different areas of each child’s
Principle 4:
Biological and Environmental
 Development
and learning result from
interaction of biological maturation and
the environment
Principle 5: Long Term Effects
 Early
experiences have both cumulative
and delayed effects on individual
children’s development; optimal periods
exist for certain types of development
and learning
Principle 6: Increasing Complexity
 Development
proceeds in predictable
directions toward greater complexity,
organization, and internalization
Principle 7: Needs Met
 Children
develop and learn best in the
context of a community where they are
safe and valued, their physical needs
are met, and they feel psychologically
Principle 8:
Social and Cultural Influence
Development and learning occur in and are
influenced by multiple social and cultural
Principle 9: Active Learners
 Children
learn in variety of ways and
with a wide range of teaching strategies
and interactions.
Principle 10: Play
 Play
is an important vehicle for
children’s development, as well as a
reflection of their development
Principle 11:
Practice and Challenge
 Development
advances when children
have opportunities to practice newly
acquired skills as well as when they
experience a challenge just beyond the
level of their present mastery
Principle 12: Experiences Affect
Learning and Development
 Children
demonstrate different modes of
knowing and learning and different ways
of representing what they know
National Indicators of
Children’s Well-Being
 Many
interconnected aspects of
children’s well-being.
 Indicators of influence resulting in a
child being well-adjusted, economically
secure, productive, educated and
Domains of Well-Being
 Family
and social environment
 Economic
 Health
Domains of Well-Being
 Physical
environment and safety
 Behavior
 Education
 General
Child Development: Principles,
Theories, & Indicators
 Basic
child development information is
fundamental to everyone’s well-being.
 Helps professionals make sound
decisions about care and education.
 Understanding P, T, and I assist in
interpreting experiences and
Child Development