Semester 1 Study Guide Answers

Physical/Cultural Geography
1. Know the major climate zones and be able to describe them. (p. 60-63)
2. Why do geographers divide the earth’s 6 major climate zones into 13 smaller zones? (p. 6063)
- It’s not possible to describe accurately all the places within the 6 major zones
3. What do geographers do to divide places on Earth on the basis of physical features? (p. 7)
- they group places into regions
4. What is found on a physical map? (p. 20)
- landforms and bodies of water
5. What is found on a political map? (p. 21)
- cities, states, capitals
6. What are the 4 major factors that influence climate? (p. 54)
-wind and ocean currents, latitude, elevation, and topography
7. What are the 2 most significant factors in defining different climates? (p. 59)
- temperature and precipitation
8. What is geography? (p. 5)
- the study of the distribution and interaction of Earth’s physical and human features
9. What characteristic categorizes a region as being a desert climate zone? (p. 62)
- less than 10 inches of rain per year
10. What are the classifications of Earth’s biomes? (p. 65)
- forest, grassland, desert, and tundra
11. A location of 0˚ latitude would mean the area is located on the ____. (p. 17)
- equator
12. How do you express absolute measurement of a location? (p. 6)
- latitude and longitude
13. What is the measurement of the Tropic of Capricorn? (p. 49)
- 23.5˚S
14. What is the measurement of the Tropic of Cancer? (p. 49)
- 23.5˚N
15. What is the measurement of the International Date Line? (p. 357)
- 180˚ longitude
16. What is the difference between physical geography and cultural geography? (notes)
- physical geography focuses on the natural environment of the planet, while cultural geography focuses
human characteristics
17. Know and be able to describe the 5 Themes of Geography. (p. 6-9)
1. Movement – how people, goods, and services move from 1 location to another.
2. Region – how places are similar or different
3. HEI – how people modify, adapt, or depend on their environment
4. Location – where a place is (absolute and relative locations)
5. Place – what is a place like (physical and human characteristics)
18. What is permafrost? (p. 63)
- permanently frozen subsoil
19. How did nomadic people adapt to their environment? Think about why they moved from
place to place. (p. 127)
- they moved from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land for their livestock
20. What is culture? (p. 71)
- a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors that shape how we live
21. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are similar in that they ask their followers to…. (p. 75)
- follow a code of behavior
22. What is a democracy? (p. 83)
- type of govt. where citizens hold the power either directly or through elected representatives
23. What is a command economy? (p. 91)
- production of goods and services is determined by a central govt., which usually owns the means of
24. What is a traditional economy? (p. 91)
- goods and services are traded without exchanging money (bartering)
United States & Canada
25. Which landforms are NOT shared by the U.S. and Canada? (p. 118)
- Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Interior Highlands, Arctic Coastal Plain, Piedmont
26. What climate regions are found in the U.S.? (p. 125)
- Tropical Wet, Tropical Wet & Dry, Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Desert, Marine West Coast,
Continental, Highlands, Semiarid, Subarctic, Tundra
27. What climate regions are found in Canada? (p. 125)
- Marine West Coast, Humid Continental, Highlands, Semiarid, Subarctic, Tundra, Icecap
28. What climate regions would someone pass through traveling from Montreal to northern
Quebec? (p. 125)
- humid continental mild summer → subarctic → tundra
29. What were the results of the Columbian Exchange? (p. 136)
- interaction of cultures between the Western and Eastern hemispheres
30. Where is the Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plains located? (p. 119)
- in the southern region between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean
31. What 2 countries border the Great Lakes? (p. 105)
- Canada and the United States
32. What was the result of the Louisiana Purchase? (p. 136)
 It set the stage for westward exploration and settlement
 It meant the U.S. didn’t have to rely heavily on imports from other countries
 It almost doubled the size of the U.S.
33. What is the current economy of the U.S. based on? (p. 142)
- service industries on a national and international level
34. What type of government does the U.S. have? (mixture of 2) (p. 139)
- representative democracy and federal republic
35. What U.S. region is similar to the Prairie Provinces of Canada? (p. 147 & 168)
- the Midwest
36. Know the 3 branches of the U.S. government and what each branch does? (p. 139)
 Executive – carries out the laws
 Legislative – enacts the laws
 Judicial – interprets the laws and reviews decisions of lower courts.
37. Which province holds ¾ of Canada’s French speaking citizens? (p. 167)
- Quebec
38. What are the benefits of the Transcontinental Railroad? (p. 130)
- connected the eastern and western railways and allowed the spread of goods and ideas
39. Why is the U.S. in a postindustrial economy? (p. 142)
- manufacturing is no longer the country’s most important industry
40. Describe characteristics of Quebec. (p. 167)
 75% of French-speaking people live there
 Separatism was proposed
 It is the largest province in terms of land area
41. Why is most of Canada’s population located near its border with the U.S.? (p. 158)
- climate there is less harsh than in northern areas of the country
42. Know the subregions of the United States. Describe each region. (p. 134; 145-149)
- Northeast, South, Midwest, West
43. Why did the U.S. want to build a canal across Panama? (p. 226)
- To serve the U.S. military and economic interests by allowing ships to travel between the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans without having to go around South America
44. Why is the St. Lawrence Seaway important to both the U.S. and Canada? (p. 126)
- it allows cargo trading ships to move from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean
45. Why is Quebec and Ontario known as the Core Provinces ? (p. 167)
- They comprise the area of the greatest landmass and population
46. How would you describe the Northeast region of the U.S.? (p. 145-146)
 It’s the economic, cultural, and political center of the U.S.
 Divided into New England and Mid-Atlantic
 History includes the Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, Constitution
 20% of the U.S. population lives on only 5% of land
 Home to the Boswash megalopolis and the nation’s capitol
Latin America
47. How has the Amazon River influenced the culture of the region? Give 3 examples. (p. 238)
- It provides hydroelectric power for Brazil, provides water for crops as well as bathing & drinking, and
allowed for culture & trade to move across South America
48. Why is preservation of the rain forest important? Give 3 reasons. (p. 245-247)
- It provides a home for a wide variety of biodiversity, deforestation is adversely affecting the planet, and
medicines and cures can be found within the ecosystem
49. Why does Latin America have a variety of climate and vegetation? Name 3 factors. (p.
- As a result of changes in altitude (elevation), land on either side of the equator, and ocean currents
50. How do hurricanes affect the economies of Caribbean countries? (p. 51, 227)
- They disrupt tourism, a major source of income
51. What ancient technique was used by the Incas for growing crops on mountains? (p. 211)
- Terraced farming
52. What is the economy of the Caribbean predominately based on? ( p. 226)
- tourism and agriculture
53. Who was Simόn Bolίvar? (p. 231 – 232)
- He helped many countries of South America achieve independence from Spain
54. Why are many Latin American citizens unable to take part in a free-market economy? Give
3 reasons. (p. 252)
- They lack education, cannot read, and lack meaningful jobs
55. What are push factors? (p. 211)
- factors that “push” people away from rural areas. Ex. low-paying jobs, poor education, poor medical
56. What are pull factors? (p. 211)
- factors that “pull” people to cities. Ex. high-paying jobs, good education, good medical care
57. Know and describe the climate zones of Europe. (p. 266, 278-280)
 Marine West Coast – warm summers; cool winters
 Humid Continental – warm or hot summers; cold, snowy winters
 Mediterranean – hot, dry summers; mild, wet winters
 Tundra – summer has light, but little heat; bitterly cold winters; permafrost
 Subarctic – cool with cold, harsh winters
58. Why are the rivers of Europe important and how have they affected development? (p. 275)
- They brought people and goods together, transportation of goods, people and ideas
59. What is a peninsula? (p. 34)
- A body of land surrounded by water on three sides
60. Why is Europe known as the “Peninsula of Peninsulas”? (p. 273)
- Europe is a large peninsula of Asia and also has its own smaller peninsulas
61. Know the peninsulas of Europe and where they are located? (p. 273)
 Italian Peninsula – includes Italy, extends into the Mediterranean Sea
 Iberian Peninsula – home to Spain, Portugal
 Balkan Peninsula- bordered by Adriatic, Mediterranean, Aegean seas
 Jutland Peninsula - forms large part of Denmark, small part of Germany
 Scandinavian Peninsula - includes Norway and Sweden
Map Locations : Be able to locate on a map
United States and Canada:
 Hudson Bay
 St. Lawrence River
 Rio Grande
Great Lakes
Lake Winnipeg
• Scandinavian peninsula
• Italian peninsula
• Iberian peninsula
• Jutland peninsula
• Balkan peninsula
Appalachian Mountains
Rocky Mountains
New York
North Dakota
South Dakota
British Columbia
Central America:
 El Salvador
 Honduras
 Nicaragua
 Costa Rica
 Panama
 Guatemala
• Rhine river
• Rhone river
• Baltic Sea
• Adriatic Sea
• Alps
• Apennines
• Massif Central
• Meseta