WARREN COURT (1953-1969) “social engineer” Brown v. Topeka BOE (1954) Racial minorities BURGER COURT (1969-1986) “mushy middle” Alexander v. Holmes Co. BOE massive court ordered desegregation of southern schools “separate but equal doctrine” “white flight” whites flee to the suburbs Defacto segregation---“by choice” DeJure segregation---“by law” School Busing Swann v. Mecklenburg (1972) inside the district ok-Charlotte Milliken v. Bradley (1974) Detroit-stops at county line College Admissions Regents of Univ. of California v. Bakke “race can be a factor but not THE factor”quotas unacceptable Engel v. Vitale (1962)-prayer Abington v. Schempf (1963)-scripture “separation of church and state” 2 components-balance the two 1st Amendments Free exercise clause vs. Establishment Clause Griswold v. CT (1962)-“the pill”Drs. Issuing contraceptives to married couples “the right to be left alone…the right most valued by civilized man.”—Louis Brandeis Lemon v. Kurtz (1971) states fund parochial school teachers “the Lemon test”-criteria created 1. Secular purpose 2. Religious neutrality -no promote, no inhibit 3. No excessive govt. entanglement in religion Eisenstat v. Baird (1971) law applies to unmarried couples Roe v. Wade (1973) Abortion rights-woman’s right to choose vs. right of the fetus “an uncommonly silly law”-Justice Stewart William O. Douglas-wrote famous decision--“specific guarantees in the Bill of Rights have ‘penumbras’ formed by emanations from these guarantees that help give them life and substance.”—“zones of privacy…in the Bill of Rights…” “due process revolution” Incorporation-nationalization of the Bill of Rights. Applicable to the states. Case by case overturning of Marshall’s 1833 Barron v. Baltimore case. Dozens of Cases Mapp v. Ohio (1961)-illegal search & seizure Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)-coerced confession Gideon Wainwright (1963)-right to counsel Miranda v. Arizona (1966)-reading of rights Faye v. Noia (1963)-federal appeals “one man, one vote” REHNQUIST COURT (1986-2005) “lone ranger to equilibrium” College Admissions Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) Univ. of Michigan point system unacceptable; race can be a factor among many factors Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) grad. School held to different standard Affirmative action programs struck down in Seattle and Louisville school systems Parents of Community Schools v. Seattle SD (2006) Meredith v. Jefferson County BOE (2006) Public schools come out from court ordered desegregationOklahoma City BOE v. Dowell (1991) Freeman v. Pitts (1992)- (Dekalb Co GA) Parallel decisions made in areas of hiring and awarding govt. contracts to minority firms-some latitude in affirmative action Richmond v. Croson (1989) Adarand v. Pena (1995) Lee v. Weisman (1992)-graduation prayer Sante Fe v. Doe (2000)-student led prayer at football games Framed in terms of educational materials for parochial and private (books, teachers, computers)—a bit tricky on neutrality and entanglement Webster v. Reproductive Health Systems (1989)upheld some restrictions (state funded clinics) Planned Parenthood of SE PA v. Casey (1992)upholds Roe v. Wade with restrictions Stenberg v. Carhart (2000) partial birth abortion upheld strikes down Nebraska law Roberts Court moving towards Accommodationallowing some degree of religion mix with govt.; religious symbolism govt. property (10 Commandments & Mojave Desert cross) Gonzalez v. Cahart (2007)-upholds federal law barring late term abortions Gay Rights Bowers v. Hardwick (1988)-upholds GA sodomy laws Lawrence v. Texas (2003)-upholds gay marriageoverturns Bowers v. Hardwick Chips away at criminal defendant rightsno massive overturning of legacy US v. Leon (1973)-good faith mistake Wainwirght v. Sykes (1977)-excessive appeals Death Penalty Furman v. GA (1972)-cruel & unusual standards too discretionary Gregg v. GA (1977)-reinstated criteria 7 defined Arizona v. Fulminade (1991) coerced confession doesn’t necessarily taint conviction-“good faith mistake” Payne v. TN (1991) victims rights; statement at sentencing Michigan State Police v. Sitz (1990) DUI roadblocks permissible Dickerson v. US (2000) upholds Miranda decision No major cases so far-has shown a tendency to restrict exclusionary rule Partisan Gerrymandering Davis v. Bandemer (1986) League of Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006)-affirmative gerrymandering-case by case basis; states can redistrict mid-decade Baker v. Carr (1962) Urbanization in 20th Century created problems with voting district lines-urban voter discrimination ROBERTS COURT (2005-Present) 1990s-Affirmitive Gerrymandering Shaw v. Reno-race can be a factor, not THE factor.