Theme Motivation Theories [General Notes] Description Motivation is the "psychological forces that determine the direction of people's behavior, their level of effort, and level of persistence," (p. 101). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Needs Physiological: Food, water, shelter. Security: Stability, protection. Social Belonging: Social interaction, friendships, love. Self Esteem: Respect, appreciation. Self-Actualization: Realize full potential. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Suggested that dissatisfaction and satisfaction are two separate continuums. People are not automatically motivated just because de-motivators are absent. Needs Affiliation: Close interpersonal relationships. Power: Influence others and control environment. Achievement: Accomplish goals, excel, and become better. McClelland's Need Theory Main Points Intrinsic: activities done for their own sake, because they are pleasurable. Extrinsic: activities done as a result of consequences, both positive and negative. Performance = Ability X Motivation Lower-order needs must be satisfied before higher-order needs become motivators. Once need is satisfied, it no longer motivates behavior. Organizations fulfill these needs in various ways, through wages and promotions. Punishment and rewards are based on elements of these needs. Extrinsic factors, a.k.a. hygiene factors, cause dissatisfaction when absent. Intrinsic factors, a.k.a. motivators, are necessary to stimulate positive motivation. People have different levels of need for each, and this translates into their job. People with high need for affiliation prefer cooperative situations, and managers tend to have high need for power and achievement, but Job Characteristics Model Goal-Setting Theory Characteristics Skills Task identity Visible outcome Task significance Whether the job is perceived as having positive impact on others. Autonomy Freedom in tasks. Job feedback "...setting a clear objective and ensuring that every participant is aware of what is expected from him or her, if this objective is to be achieved," (p. 109). Equity Theory Employees evaluate what they receive from a job in relation to what they contribute. This includes pay, promotions, time, skills, effort, etc. Expectancy Theory 1. If a person puts in effort, it will result in good performance 2. Good performance has rewards 3. The value of the reward to the person is influential B. F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning: "the idea Reinforcement Theory their success is also contingent upon their value base. High motivation for employees must be met by these characteristics, as well as 1. Experienced meaningfulness of the work. 2. Responsibility for the outcomes. 3. Knowledge of results. 1. Specific goals increase performance 2. Difficult goals that are accepted by employees result in higher performance 3. Feedback leads to higher performance 4. People are more committed to goals they set and that are made public Employees will attempt to fix this inequity on their own, either justifying overrewarding or through decreasing performance and production. Perceived fairness affects an employee’s level of motivation. If the payoff is uncertain, people may not put in much effort. Reinforce desired behavior (with rewards) that people continue behavior that is rewarded and suppress behavior that does not lead to desired consequences," (p. 111). and discourage undesirable behavior by negative reinforcement, extinction, or punishment.