Close Reading

•The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 as a result of the Civil
•Section 1 defines citizenship as all persons born or naturalized in the
United States, as well as provides due process protections at the state
•We chose this topic because it crosses all middle school content areas.
•This amendment can be used in future lessons as background
Close Reading:
1. What words do you notice?
2. What is the intent of this document?
1. Identify the document.
2. What is the author’s intention?
1. When would this amendment
have been added?
2. This amendment would be in
response to what events?
Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the
United States, and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the
United States and of the State
wherein they reside. No State shall
make or enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or immunities
of citizens of the United States; nor
shall any State deprive any person of
life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor deny to any
person within its jurisdiction the
equal protection of the laws.
“14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Civil Rights (1866).” National Archives.
(June 25, 2012).
Close Reading:
1. What do you see in this image?
2. Who do the men represent?
1. What is the author’s intention?
2. What judgments can we make
about the author?
1. Who is the audience?
2. What relevant events occurred
prior to this image?
1. How does this image relate to
the 14th Amendment?
2. How are the two sources
similar and different?
Adler, John. “A Man Knows a Man.” Harper Weekly. (June 25, 2012).
•Students will begin by examining the 14th Amendment document and
practice historical thinking skills.
•Students will then examine the political cartoon related to the 14th
Amendment using historical thinking skills.
•Students will corroborate the two sources.
•Students will complete a formative assessment.
What about women
and Native Americans?
•What two ways can an individual become a citizen?
•Why would this amendment have been unpopular when it was ratified?
•In whose eyes?
•Besides citizenship, what other main element is described?