Bobby Hutton – aka – Lil’ Bobby. Read about his life on p.79. What was so dangerous about this man and the movement known as the ‘Black Panthers’ Who were the Black Panthers? Learning objectives TBAT origins and aims of the Black Panthers To assess the reasons for their decline Your task Read p.79-81 and note down the following: The origins & aims of the Black Panthers The ideological inspiration for the movement Can you explain what was so threatening about them? Origins & Aims Founders – Huey P Newton & Bobby Seale (1966) Inspiration – ‘the BP movement exists in the spirit of Malcolm X’ Self- defence – militias in BP uniforms Improved conditions – welfare schemes for northern ghettoes 10 Point Programme Power over their destinies Free healthcare End to police brutality End to wars of aggression Full employment Anti-capitalist Better housing Better education Better justice system Better social conditions How many of these aims were already covered by King or the NOI? Ideologies Black nationalist – self-government Anti-colonialism Supported revolutionary government, e.g. Mao’s Communist China Opposition to Vietnam War Admired Marxist aims to improve conditions of working classes Your task Read p.81-3 and take notes on the methods of the movement. Focus on these areas: Patrol the Pigs Welfare programmes Health care clinics Education You can choose a maximum of 2 pieces of evidence for each category! Be prepared to explain your choices Methods ‘Patrol the pigs’ – police operations monitored; Newton carried law books in car, intervening when blacks stopped by police Welfare programmes – ‘survival programmes’ e.g. free breakfasts for school children, health clinics, free ‘liberation schools’ Health clinics - tested for sickle cell anaemia & contraceptive care Education – Liberation Schools educated black Americans about past struggles & achievements & helped raise self-esteem Why did the Black Panthers go into decline in the 1970s? Your task Read about the reasons why the Black Panthers went into decline on p.834. Take notes under these headings. Again limit yourself - this time to 3 pieces of evidence Internal pressure External pressure Decline Focus of police attention esp FBI’s COINTELPRO organisation due to support of armed resistance & criminal activity & suspicions of links with Communists Many leaders killed or imprisoned, e.g. Newton arrested for murder in 1967, or on the run FBI used underhand techniques, e.g. tapped phone calls, infiltrated organisation, forged letters Funds spent on legal fees to detriment of ‘survival programmes’ Tensions between leadership, e.g. between Newton & Eldrige Cleaver Sexism - tensions between male & female recruits Role play A group of Black Panther activists are to hold a press conference. The press are suspicious about the aims and methods of this new movement. Ask questions about the methods, inspiration, relations with Police, education programme Extension task Read the extracts your teacher provides and note down additional evidence for the decline of the movement. Homework Prepare for a timed essay question on the impact of Black Power. Put together a top ten list of Black Power music and films Plenary Reasons for divisions within civil rights? Aims of Black Panthers Reasons for failure? Characteristics of Black Power movement Were the problems facing Black Power similar to other civil rights organisations?