Ms. Menard’s Outline for the Short Story Compare and Contrast Essay - Nature Prompt: Compare and contrast “The Open Boat” by Stephen Crane and “Through the Tunnel” by Doris Lessing. Explain how both authors show the man vs. nature struggle in both stories, and use the third paragraph to compare and contrast the differences and offer the reader advice about learning from the characters in both stories. The Big Picture: There will be five paragraphs: Introduction, Body 1 (about the man vs. nature struggle between Billie and the ocean), Body 2 (about the man vs. nature struggle between Jerry and the ocean) Body 3 (about what the reader can learn humans defying nature in general), and a Conclusion. Each Body Paragraph is in GBYRRYRRYRRPO format. Introduction Paragraph – include 10 domain vocabulary words and 8 regular words (adjectives , adverbs, or strong verbs) Begin with a hook about the topic of man vs. nature struggles; do not mention either story yet. Introduce the topic of struggles with EITHER a simile, anaphora (a phrase repeated three times), or personification. Add one sentence of background knowledge that summarizes how characters in both stories try to survive against the sea, and give a tiny summary of each story. (You can tell the endings of the stories.) Write a sentence with PATHOS that causes the reader to feel emotion, like compassion or frustration, over the consequences faced by a person in the man vs. nature struggle. Lead this sentence into your green thesis statement. State the green THESIS STATEMENT. In one sentence, restate the key words in the prompt in a topic sentence that mentions both stories, both authors, the topic (man’s struggle against the ocean), and the point of view you choose to write about. (If you need two sentences, use a form of punctuation that will allow you to have “two sentences for the price of one.” Semicolons are awesome for this! ) Write one of your sentences in the paragraph in this pattern: Sentence; however, sentence. Body Paragraph 1 – include 10 domain words and 10 regular words Begin with a topic sentence that matches the thesis from the intro. It should include the domain words from “The Open Boat.” Yellow/Red/Red 1: Define what struggles in nature exist (beyond the ocean) are and how they are related to a person’s actions and/or beliefs. Also, use LOGOS here to show the logical steps of thoughtsactionsconsequences when competing against nature. Select a quote from “The Open Boat” to demonstrate your claim. Then explain it with a second red that shows how thoughts, actions, and consequences are always related. Explain how one leads to the next. Yellow/Red/Red 2: Make a claim that Billie or the men experience consequences in “The Open Boat” when ---------------; include a rhetorical question as an extra sentence. Select a quote from “The Open Boat” that shows how Billie or the captain experience consequences from nature. Use the second red to analyze if one of the men learns a lesson by the end of the story. Why does it MATTER? Yellow/Red/Red 3: Make a claim about Billie and what he learns as a consequence of his behavior in “The Open Boat.” Defend your claim with a quote with a strong lead in or lead out. Include a second red that explains how anyone who challenges nature could face the same outcome. Use a metaphor or simile somewhere in your Yellow/Red/Red 3 section. Try to compare something abstract to something concrete. Wrap up the paragraph about what the characters learn about nature in “The Open Boat.” Write one of your sentences in this pattern: In order to prove his point, Name (add a verb)….. Body Paragraph 2 – include 10 domain words and 10 regular words Begin with a topic sentence that matches the thesis from the intro. It should include the domain words from “Through the Tunnel” in a creative way. Connect the topic sentence here to the thesis about nature, but also state how becoming a man inspires Jerry’s challenge against nature. Yellow/Red/Red 1: Make a claim about the ocean is beautiful, and Jerry respects it. Find a section in “Through the Tunnel” that celebrates the magnificence of nature. Later, this will create tension ask you ask how something so lovely can become so threatening. Use personification in this YRR section. Yellow/Red/Red 2: Make a claim about why transitioning into manhood would require Jerry to challenge the ocean and its deadly obstacles. Claim HOW the transition into manhood demands that Jerry overcome a substantial challenge. Find an example from “Through the Tunnel” that defends this claim and add it as a quote in MLA format. Use your second red to add your opinion about the consequences, positive or negative, in this passage. Use alliteration in this YRR section. Yellow/Red/Red 3: Make a claim about which person in “Through the Tunnel” is an expert at beating the ocean, and state what the expert learns. Pick your quote wisely and defend your claim. Then use your second red to make a comparison about two types of people and how one person learns about consequences in a different way than the other person. Be very specific in your paper. Use ETHOS to defend your claim here. Wrap up the paragraph about what the characters learn about beating nature. Write at least one sentence in this pattern: Sentence, BOYFANS Sentence. (Reminder: BOYFANS are coordinating conjunctions: but, or, yet, for, and, nor, so) Body Paragraph 3 – include 10 domain words and 10 regular words Begin with a topic sentence that matches the thesis in the introduction. This is the most important topic sentence in the paper because it states how both stories mix into one piece of evidence with a lesson for the reader. What is the lesson? State it briefly in the topic sentence. Yellow/Red/Red 1: Make a claim about how the consequences and lessons are the same in some way in both stories. Find a quote from one of the stories and state it in the first red, but also describe (without a quote) how it is similar to an event in the other story. Include a second red to explain how consequences, in general, have similar qualities. Include PATHOS to show how characters and even real people experience an emotion as a result of a consequence. Yellow/Red/Red 2: Make a COUNTERCLAIM about BOTH STORIES. In the yellow main point, state how EVEN THOUGH there are similarities, the significant DIFFERENCE is ---------------------. Just like the previous YRR, pick a quote from one story and review a key event from the other. Use PERSONIFICATION OR ALLUSION to strengthen the point you are making in a second red. What is the lesson to be learned in this situation? Include a TIMELESS allusion to someone else who is an expert in consequences in this YRR section. (Hint: Miley Cyrus is not timeless. Romeo and Juliet are timeless.) Include either ETHOS, LOGOS, or PATHOS to present your evidence. Yellow/Red/Red 3: This is the most important YRR in the entire paper. What can be learned about CHALLENGING NATURE? Is it worth it? Should it be done? Why is it awesome? Why is it horrible? Do you recommend certain criteria for survival? Reach a conclusion and write a one sentence yellow main point to state your belief WITHOUT saying “I believe” or “This shows.” Just state what you believe without the “I believe” part. Again, pick a quote and add a second red to emphasize the lesson to be learned. In this YRR section, include a rhetorical device that you haven’t used yet. Again, use either ETHOS, LOGOS, or PATHOS to state your point. Wrap up this paragraph with a short green conclusion for this section. Write one of your sentences in this pattern: Not only does this show…., it also…. Conclusion Paragraph – include 10 domain words and 10 regular words Restate the thesis statement – What is your overall belief about man vs. nature, and how they are related to actions and beliefs (or to something else)? Review how Billie is impacted by a man vs. nature struggle. Review how Jerry in “Through the Tunnel” experiences his epic battle differently. Review the most important lesson to learn about consequences from Body Paragraph 3. End with a motivating statement about how learning from the mistakes and successes of others helps in a specific way. Write one of your sentences in this pattern: Either…., or….. Include anaphora or an oxymoron somewhere in the conclusion. REMINDERS: Yellow – Make the statement. Include a TRANSITION. BURY IT in the middle of the sentence to be proficient. Red – Include a quote. Make quotes look exactly like this: “Quote” (Lessing 4). -------OR------- “Quote” (Crane 41). Red – Explain how your quote proves that your yellow statement is true. Writing an Argument – Practicing the Pieces in the Paper PURPOSE: TO GET OTHERS TO THINK, ACT, OR FEEL THE WAY YOU DO ETHOS LOGOS PATHOS Definition: the character or Definition: refers to the logical Definition: the anticipated persona of the writer as content of communication, emotional reaction of the perceived by the reader or including the information being audience to the content of a audience. In other words, ethos presented and the organizational speech or written work. When a assures your reader, or audience, structure of that information. writer uses pathos, he or she is that you know what you’re Logos might include logical counting on making the audience talking about. You’ve done your content, connections you make feel a certain emotion. The hope research, earned your degrees, between the elements of your is, this emotion will make the or experienced it yourself. argument, and conclusions audience more receptive to the Bottom Line: You are an expert. presented. speaker’s argument. Ethos = Expert Logos = Logic Pathos = Passion Example:Dr. Dentist is a member Example: If the typical car Example: Call today and save this of ADA, the American Dental payment is $200 per month and a sad-eyed lonely puppy from Association, and she summer job pays $60 per week, another night in a shelter. He recommends… then… needs you. He needs a forever home.