Theory Summary Chart Theory Gestalt Summary Emphasizes the present. Only the now exists. Now = experience = awareness=reality. (Fritz Perls) Goals of Therapy Identify and analyze the smaller issues in relationship to the larger problem or situation. - PersonCentered Focuses on genuineness, empathy, positive regard, and concreteness. Self-actualization is the drive of existence. (Carl Rogers) Techniques Dream Work- student fantasizes what it would be like in different parts of the dream. Empty Chair-student talks to chair to understand rational and irrational ways of communicating Confrontation-student is . challenged for actions or words. Making the Rounds-expressing emotion or feeling to each person in the group. I Take Responsibility-makes statement about issue and completes with “and I take responsibility”. May I Feed You a SentenceCounselor supplies student with a sentence to help clarify thoughts. Applications Requires high level cognition and behavioral development. This theory would be difficult for young children. Through counseling, clients Nondirective- emphasizes the Works well with Learn to cope with situations. development of the relationship students with mild to By shedding defense mech- through acceptance and clarifi- moderate anxiety, anisms, people become open cation. adjustment and interself-awareness. Reflective period- client begin personal disorders. to create nonthreatening relation-Change may be short ships in their his/her life. short term and Counselor responds to the and address only student’s feelings and reflects surface issues. the affect back. Experimental stage- emphasis Placed on positive regard and congruence. Individual Psychology Self-defeating attitude based on feelings of inferiority. All behavior is goal oriented. Students are able to assume responsibility and achieve personal goals. (Alfred Adler) Facilitate, change, and encourage appropriate behaviors. Develop a relationship with student based on deeper understanding of problems. Draware helpful for understanding patterns of behavior. Use questioning to explore student perspectives. Encouragement is critical. Behavioral Approach All behavior is learned: Replace undesirable behavior 1. Positive reinforcers to yield 1. Stimulus Response: change with desirable behavior. desired result. through conditioning of 2. Practicing desired behaviors involuntary response. 3. Planning environment to 2. Applied behavior: reward or promote behavior. punishment for actions. 4. Systematic desensitization. 3. Social-cognition: Acquire new 5. Assertive training to help knowledge and behavior by with expression of feelings. observing others. (B. F. Skinner) 6. Use of contract to detail behavior. Empowers young children. Student makes the effort to change. Reality Therapy Humans operate on conscious level Students assess behavior and rather than unconscious. and must learn to be mentally Counselors do not use testing or strong and make effective traditional diagnosis. (William choices. Develop skills to Glasser) cope with daily stresses and problems. Students must be able to determine their own course of action. Keeps students focused on the present. Works best with other children who 1. Humor 2. Role-play 3. Confrontation 4. Feedback 5. Goal setting 6. Attending and teaching 7. Designing plans 8. Contracts Works better for immediate behavior goals rather than long-term. Play therapy is beneficial for young children. understand choices and show desire to change. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Pleasurable behaviors help students maintain commitment to changed patterns in thinking. Students seek a more balanced life by limiting demands. Focus is placed on relationship between thoughts and their impacts. (Albert Ellis) Students come to understand that they have a choice. 1. Teaching and disputing educate students on their feelings. 2. Inference chaining reveals thoughts need to be confronted. 3. Counselors guide students through cognitive processing, guided imagery, and behavioral disputing. ABC equation: A- activating event or fact. B- student’s belief. C- behavioral consequences. Cognitive Behavior Approach Cognition focuses on thinking and understanding why behavior is the way it is. The behavior aspect focuses on how to change the behavior. Client assessment is based on identifying thought patterns. (Albert Bandura) Existential Individuals become aware of being, Clients take a more active role There are no specific techniques. Students assume responsibility, freedom, and in shaping their own reality Students must be ready to be responsibility for potential. and putting themselves first. open. their own lives. Identify undesirable behavior. 1. Behavior Modification using Modify behavior by using positive or negative reinforcers. reinforcers. 2. Shape desired behavior once it begins to occur. 3. Extinguish unwanted behavior. 4. Use of confrontation, time out, confirmation and attending to continue progress. Ineffective with mentally or severely emotionally disabled, or very young children. Works well with children. Reinforcement technique is familiar to classrooms. It is necessary to keep in mind the level of cognition when creating the conceptual framework.