Natural Disasters

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Tornadoes
Volcanoes
Tsunamis
Hurricanes
Earthquakes
by: Mr. Wells
Table of Contents
Slide
Introduction………………………………………………………….3
 Chapter 1: Tornadoes…………………………………………4
 Chapter 2: Volcanoes………………………………………….8
 Chapter 3: Tsunamis…………………………………………..12
 Chapter 4: Hurricanes………………………………………..16
 Chapter 5: Earthquakes……………………………………..20
Conclusion………………………………………………..………….24
Glossary…………………………………………………………………25
Bibliography………………………………………………………....26
Introduction
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting
from natural processes of the Earth; examples include
tornadoes, hurricanes, volcano eruptions,
earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic
processes.
A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property
damage, and typically leaves some economic damage
in its wake, the severity of which depends on the
affected population's resilience, or ability to recover.
Tornadoes
Fun Tornado Facts
Welcome to the Tornado Facts
website. Here you will find many
interesting facts on tornadoes and
twisters. Here are some fun tornado facts:
The most powerful Tornadoes occur in the
United States.
A typical tornado only lasts for a few
minutes.
Every tornado has its own color, sound and
shape.
You need to step on the pedal of a car pass
70 miles per hour to outrun the fastest
tornadoes.
The chances that a tornado is a F5, the
highest classification for a tornado on the
F-scale, is less than 0.1%
Tornadoes have been reported in every
state in the US and also in every season.
A Tornado can occur at any time, but most
often between 3pm and 9pm.
Causes
Causes
1. Tornadoes are formed when hot air and cold air are mixed.
2. The clouds grow larger and larger. Finally, a thunderstorm is brewed up with a strong updraft.
3. The moisture in the warm air rises and condenses into large clouds.
Effects
Effects
1. Tornadoes can make
People die.
2. The tornado can
destroy a lot of homes,
stores, and much more.
3. It can make serious
injuries.
Click on the photo for actual footage of this tornado:
On May 22, 2011, one of the deadliest tornados
in U.S. history strikes Joplin, Missouri directly
killing 159 people and injuring over 1,000.
Safety Measures
 Safety Tips
1. Know where you go! When a tornado warning is
issued, go at once to a windowless, interior room such
as a bathroom, storm cellar, basement or lowest level
of a building.
2. Don’t loose your roof to high winds! Have your
parents install strapping to keep the roof attached to
the walls.
3. Make a list of items to bring inside in the event a
tornado watch is issued. Don’t forget your pet.
Volcanoes
Volcano Facts
Iceland is currently the most
volcanically active location on Earth.
The world’s biggest volcanic
mountain is the Mauna Loa in
Hawaii.
Growers found that the slopes of
volcanoes tend to have fertile soil
which is suited for growing crops like
grapes, olives and beans.
The ancient Romans believed that
Vulcan, their god of fire and
metalwork, caused volcanic
eruptions. The word Volcano comes
from Vulcan’s name.
When a volcanic mountain gets ready
to erupt, its sides may bulge.
A person who studies volcanoes is
called a volcanologist.
Hawaii is still growing due to volcanic
eruptions.
Sometimes lighting is produced from
the ash clouds spewed out from a
volcano. This is called a dirty
thunderstorm.
Causes
 Causes
1. Magma forms together with rocks and explodes.
2. Buoycny is a force that causes lighter material to rise
through surrounding denser material.
3. A pool of molten rocks below the surface when
pressure builds up it erupts.
Effects
 Effects
1. Volcanoes can cause serious pain and injury.
2. Destroys buildings homes and lives.
3. Melts lots of landmarks and property.
Safety Measures
 Safety tips
1. Wear long sleeved shirts and pants.
2. Keep car or truck engines off.
3. If outside find shelter quick
Tsunami Facts
Tsunamis
A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that sends
surges of water, sometimes reaching heights of
over 100 feet (30.5 meters), onto land. These
walls of water can cause widespread
destruction when they crash ashore.
These awe-inspiring waves are typically caused
by large, undersea earthquakes at tectonic plate
boundaries. When the ocean floor at a plate
boundary rises or falls suddenly it displaces the
water above it and launches the rolling waves
that will become a tsunami.
Most tsunamis, about 80 percent, happen
within the Pacific Ocean’s “Ring of Fire,” a
geologically active area where tectonic shifts
make volcanoes and earthquakes common.
Tsunamis may also be caused by underwater
landslides or volcanic eruptions. They may
even be launched, as they frequently were in
Earth’s ancient past, by the impact of a large
meteorite plunging into an ocean.
Tsunamis race across the sea at up to 500 miles
(805 kilometers) an hour—about as fast as a jet
airplane. At that pace they can cross the entire
expanse of the Pacific Ocean in less than a day.
And their long wavelengths mean they lose
very little energy along the way.
Causes
 When an oceanic plate hits a continental plate the plates press together and
pressure builds.
Eventually the heavier oceanic plate slips under the lighter continental plate
and causes an earthquake.
The earthquake lifts part of the ocean up and drops other parts down.
What happens on the ocean floor is mirrored on the surface of the water above.
The gravity acts fast to even out the water’s surface. The seismic energy created
that big wave and it doesn’t just disappear. Waves start moving up to 600 miles
per hour but you can’t see them.
The Tsunami extends thousands of feet deep into the ocean.
Tsunamis carry lots of water and energy so they can travel very far.
Effects
 Effects Tsunamis can Make
 1. They can destroy lives/drowned loved ones.
 2. Wash away properties.
 3. Wash away and drowned pets.
 4. The sound will make you scared and after it happens
you might not be able to sleep well because you might
hear the sound of a tsunami at night.
 5. You won’t have anything to live like: Food, clothes,
shelter, beds and blankets.
Safety Measures
 How To Be Safe and Prepared For Tsunamis 1. Pack
some clothes.
2. Pack some pet food if you have any pets.
 3. Pack food for you and your family.
 4. Pack cooking stuff.
 5. Flashlights.
 6. Sleeping bags.
 7. Be ready to get yourself, stuff, family and animals out
of the house and to higher ground.
 8. Listen for Tsunami warnings and take them
seriously.
Hurricane Facts
Hurricanes
A hurricane is an intense tropical storm with
powerful winds and heavy rain.
Other names for a hurricane include cyclone,
typhoon and tropical storm.
While they are essentially the same thing, the
different names usually indicate where the storm
took place. Tropical storms that form in the
Atlantic or Northeast Pacific (near the United
States) are called hurricanes, those that form
near in the Northwest Pacific (near Japan) are
called typhoons and those that form in the South
Pacific or Indian oceans are called cyclones.
Hurricanes usually form in tropical areas of the
world.
Hurricanes develop over warm water and use it as
an energy source.
Hurricanes lose strength as they move over land.
Coastal regions are most at danger from
hurricanes.
Causes



What Causes Hurricanes
1. Hurricanes are large tropical storms that form in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.
2. A hurricane has winds up to 74 miles per hour or more.
3. In the eye of a hurricane it is peaceful, but outside the eye it is rough.
Effects
 Effects Hurricanes Make
1. Hurricanes can put families’ lives in danger, kill
loved ones, and give your children scary thoughts.
 2. Hurricanes can tear down houses, buildings & trees.
 3. You may have to leave your home, your belongings,
and even pets to get out of the way of a hurricane.
 4. Alot of property is also damaged by the floods from
the heavy rain that comes with a hurricane.
Safety Measures
 Hurricane Safety Tips
1. Watch the news to make sure that they don’t say a
hurricane is coming. If they do leave ASAP. (As soon as
possible)
 2. Don’t try saving your animals. You can get killed.
 3. When you leave your house find a place far away
from the hurricane to stay for the night.
4. Try to save up money in case your insurance won't
replace your house so you will be able to pay for a new
one.
Earthquake facts
Earthquakes
A typical earthquake lasts under 60
seconds.
An earthquake can trigger a tsunami or a
volcano to erupt.
Alaska has the most earthquakes of any
states in the US
The deadliest earthquake happened in
Central China, killing over 800,000 in
1556. People during that time and region
lived in caves and died from the caves
collapsing
About the only places that have never
recorded a major earthquake in the US
are southern parts of Florida, Alabama
and Texas.
Causes
1.
2.
What causes earthquakes and where do they happen?
The earth has four major layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle
and crust. (figure 2) The crust and the top of the mantle make up
a thin skin on the surface of our planet. But this skin is not all in
one piece – it is made up of many pieces like a puzzle covering the
surface of the earth. (figure 3) Not only that, but these puzzle
pieces keep slowly moving around, sliding past one another and
bumping into each other. We call these puzzle pieces tectonic
plates, and the edges of the plates are called the plate boundaries.
The plate boundaries are made up of many faults, and most of the
earthquakes around the world occur on these faults. Since the
edges of the plates are rough, they get stuck while the rest of the
plate keeps moving. Finally, when the plate has moved far enough,
the edges unstick on one of the faults and there is an earthquake.
Effects
 The effects of the rumbling produced by earthquakes
usually leads to the destruction of structures such as
buildings, bridges, and dams. They can also trigger
landslides.
Safety Measures
 Safety Tips
 Have an earthquake readiness plan.
 Consult a professional to learn how to make your home sturdier, such as
bolting bookcases to wall studs, installing strong latches on cupboards, and
strapping the water heater to wall studs.
 Locate a place in each room of the house that you can go to in case of an
earthquake. It should be a spot where nothing is likely to fall on you.
 Keep a supply of canned food, an up-to-date first aid kit, 3 gallons (11.4 liters)
of water per person, dust masks and goggles, and a working battery-operated
radio and flashlights.
 Know how to turn off your gas and water mains.
Conclusion
Glossary
 natural disaster
 tornado
 hurricane
 volcano
 earthquakes
 tsunamis
Bibliography
 Tornadoes
 Volcanoes
 Tsunamis
 Hurricanes
 Earthquakes
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