World War I •Causes M.A.I.N (Acronym for Causes) • • • • Militarism Alliance Imperialism Nationalism Nationalism • Definition of Nationalism – Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the • nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life – Your Country is the Best Nationalism • Does it still occur today? • Which countries tend to be more nationalistic? • Which countries are not? Nationalism • In the USA – Nationalism = Patriotism – How do you feel about the Flag? National Anthem? Red, White and Blue? Nationalism • This concepts motivates European countries to be imperialistic. – Each country wants to show off their might Europe becomes Divided • 2 Lose Alliances form • What is an alliance? – Example: TV Show “Survivor” 1st Alliance • Known as the Triple Alliance – Formed in 1882 – The 3 countries were Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy 2nd Alliance • Known as the Triple Entente – Formed in1907 – Countries consisted of France, Great Britain, and Russia Crises Test the Alliances • Conflicts in the Balkans – Between 1908-1913 – Tough lessons learned • Those that were willing to fight – Appeared to be stronger Conflicts in the Balkans • Those that were willing to fight – Preserved national honor Conflicts in the Balkans • Those that tried to avoid war – End up being publicly humiliated Brinkmanship • The practice of threatening to go to war to achieve one’s goals • What is the problem with this kind of foreign policy?? Brinkmanship • Eventually somebody/ some country is going to call out the other • With this type of foreign policy, Europe was in a very fragile state Militarism • Definition: – Aggressive preparation for war The Growth of Armies • What problems may occur if every country is building up their forces? Conscription • Also known as a military draft – This becomes common place in all European countries • Only GB does not have a draft Growing Armies • European armies double in size between 1890-1914 – Russia grew the largest • 1.3 million Growing Armies • Military leaders become very powerful in their countries • They begin drafting elaborate plans – Being able to mobilize millions of men – Stocking up on supplies in case of war Growing Armies • What are the effects if countries are seeing their neighbors engaged in this type of activity? Lack of Power • Political Leaders were at the mercy of the Military Leaders – Forced to make decisions that benefited the military Balkans • Crisis begins in 1914 • Austria-Hungary and Russia struggle to control the new lands – Use to be ruled by the Ottomans Balkans • Russia wanted to create a large, independent Slavic state in the Balkans – Austria-Hungary didn’t want this to happen Balkans • This becomes a very touchy area • Europeans saw the writing on the all. – Most felt that it was just a matter of time. British Ambassador’s Thoughts about the Situation “Serbia will some day set Europe by the ears, and bring about a universal war on the continent….I cannot tell how exasperated the people are getting here at the continual worry which that little country causes to Austria under encouragement from Russia….It will be lucky if Europe succeeds in avoiding war as a result of the present crisis. The next time a Serbian crisis arises,…I feel sure that Austria-Hungary will refuse to admit of any Russian interference in the dispute and that she will proceed to settle her differences with her little neighbor by herself.” Concept of “Powder Keg” What does this mean? Sarajevo June 28, 1914 • The Black Hand – A Serbian terrorist organization • Wanted to assassinate Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sofia • Wanted Bosnia to be free of AustrianHungarian rule Guilt by Association • Leaders of Austria-Hungary concluded that Serbia had something to do with assassination – Believed that Serbia needed to be dealt with severely Austria-Hungary Ultimatum • Serbia had to agree to let AustriaHungary control them – They were only allowed 48 hours to decide Austria-Hungary Ultimatum • Serbia tried to stall • A/H declared war on July 28th, 1914 – They began to mobilize troops – A/H wanted war What about the Germans? • Germany gave A/H full support – They called it a “Blank Check” – Ger. Encouraged A/H to be aggressive What about the Germans? • Germany knows that by giving A/H their full support that Russia will get involved • Also realized that France would probably get involved – Hoped that GB would remain neutral What about the Germans? • Too late to be diplomatic – Military plans and timetables already set into motion • Troops are mobilized Declaration of War • Russia- July 29th • Germany- Invades Belgium on Aug. 2nd – Violates Belgium’s state of neutrality – Germany wanted to pass through Bel. To get to France Declaration of War • Great Britain doesn’t like this at all – Now is involved – GB declares war RESULT??