Highlights of the Land Biomes

of the
Land Biomes
• Biome that has little precipitation (a type of desert) and low
• Freezing and Thawing cycle is crucial to the survival of tundra
• Life fills the Tundra during several months of thaw.
• Permanently frozen ground is called permafrost. (This layer allows for
low drainage and causes rich marshes and pools during thaw)
• Common tundra plants include lichens, mosses, grass, wildflowers, and
shrubs. (Why no larger trees?)
• How animals survive:
• Tough out the cold (emperor penguins)
• Hibernate during cold (polar bears, insects)
• Migrate away and return for thaw (artic birds, caribou)
• Challenges the tundra faces:
• Global Warming (disrupts freeze/thaw)
• Air Pollution (ie: kills liches: How does this effect the food web?)
• Poaching
Biome with low precipitation and higher temperatures.
Great variety of different deserts on earth.
Extreme daily temperature swings.
Desert plants conserve and store water. Roots cover large area to absorb
• Desert animals: many have features that allow them to conserve
water/deal with heat (reptiles, foxes, etc)
• Some adjust behavior (ie: hunt at night)
• Issues in the Desert: Desertification
Grasslands / Savanah
• These Biomes have more water than a desert, but not enough to support a forest.
• Usually are near deserts and are in danger of desertification.
• Amount of rain limits organisms and also susceptible to fires (which can
rejuvenate the land)
• Animals include insects, birds, rodents, grazing animals and their predators.
• Waterholes and migration during dry season help many organisms to survive.
• Issues in the Grasslands:
• Overgrazing and drought (can cause dust storms)
• Habitat loss and interruption of migration patterns
• Poaching
(Many African animals depend on wildlife preserves to survive)
Rainforest / Jungle
• Stable temperatures and abundant water make these Biomes have a
vast variety of organisms (great Biodiversity)
• Soil nutrients absorbed and cycled quickly.
• Layers of the Forest
• Emergent, Canopy, Understory, Forest Floor
• Light levels at different layers determine which organisms live there
and the niche they fill.
• Issues in the Rainforest:
• Loss of habitat and biodiversity (What is one way habitat is lost?)
Deciduous Forest and Coniferous Forest (Tiaga)
• Deciduous trees lose
their leaves during colder
• About 6 months growth.
• Trees photosynthesize to
prepare for cold.
• Rich Soil, Abundant
Water and Food, Variety
of Habitats. These all
allow for Biodiversity.
• Coniferous Forests consists of evergreen
trees and usually encompass colder
• Taiga are a very important producer of
oxygen for earth.
• Snow provides and important layer in the
forest (insulating the ground and
protecting roots, prevents permafrost,
and warmth for animals)
• Some animals hibernate or migrate.
• Permanent Destruction of Forest
• Know causes of Deforestation
• Know negative results of Deforestation
• Know how humans are Impacted
• Know some solutions to Deforestation