He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions

• The leader of the pure foods crusade.
• He created the "Poison Squad" experiments,
in which young, healthy men volunteered to
ingest food additive chemicals to determine
their impact on human health.
• His "poison squad" brought national
awareness to the problem, whereas women's
groups brought local attention.
Dr. Harvey Wiley
• American leader of the movement to legalize
birth control during the early 1900's.
• As a nurse in the poor sections of New York
City, she had seen the suffering caused by
unwanted pregnancy.
• Founded the first birth control clinic in the
U.S. and the American Birth Control League,
which later became Planned Parenthood.
Margaret Sanger
• Sociologist who promoted "social psychology,"
the belief that social environment affected the
behavior of individuals.
• He believed that practical solutions to current
problems should be derived through the
united efforts of church, state and science,
and that the citizens should actively try to
cure social ills rather than sit passively and
wait for corrections.
Edward Ross
• He asserted that economic theory should
reflect social conditions.
• He believed that the government should act
to regulate the economy to prevent social
Richard Ely
• Idea that people have the right to propose a
new law.
• A law passed by the legislature can be referred
to the people for approval/veto.
• The people can petition and vote to have an
elected official removed from office.
• These all made elected officials more
responsible and sensitive to the needs of the
• They were part of the movement to make
government more efficient and scientific.
• An election where people directly elect their
party's candidates for office.
• Candidates had previously been selected by
party caucuses that were considered elitist
and undemocratic.
• This made elected officials more accountable
to the people.
Direct Primary
• 1913 – It authorized Congress to levy an
income tax.
16th Amendment
• 1913 – It gave the power to elect senators to
the people.
• Senators had previously been appointed by
the legislatures of their states.
17th Amendment
• 1919 – It prohibited the manufacture and sale
of alcoholic beverages.
18th Amendment
• 1920 – It gave women the right to vote.
19th Amendment
• As governor of Wisconsin, he was the first to
bring Progressive reforms to the state level.
Robert LaFollette
• Started government regulation of public
utilities in New York.
• He was Secretary of State under Harding and
later became Chief Justice of the Supreme
• He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and
lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
Charles Evans Hughes
• A fire in New York's __in 1911 killed 146
people, mostly women.
• They died because the doors were locked to
keep out union organizers and the windows
were too high for them to get to the ground.
• Dramatized the poor working conditions and
let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
• National organization set up in 1895 to work
for prohibition.
• Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the
effects of drinking.
Anti-Saloon League
• President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic
program formed upon three basic ideas:
conservation of natural resources, control of
corporations, and consumer protection.
Square Deal
• Authorized the use of federal money to
develop the west. It helped to protect national
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
• First national forest conservation policy,
authorized the president to set aside areas of
land for national forests.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891
• Large strike by coal miners. When
management failed to negotiate to TR’s liking,
he threatened to nationalize the company.
• “To hell with the Constitution when the
people need coal.”
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902
• This strengthened earlier federal legislation
that outlawed preferential pricing through
Elkins Act, 1903
• __ are returns of parts of the amount paid for
goods or services, serving as a reduction or
• It imposed stricter control over railroads and
expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce
Commission, including giving the ICC the
power to set maximum rates.
Hepburn Act, 1906
• Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory
powers of the Interstate Commerce
Commission to include communications.
• It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own
inquiries into violations of its regulations.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
• Nickname for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal
official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic
trusts through vigorous enforcement of
antitrust laws.
• The Supreme Court ordered this company to
dissolve because it was a trust.
• It was the first trust broken by TR.
Northern Securities Company case
• 1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary
meat packing and government inspection of
meat products crossing state lines.
Meat Inspection Act
• The author who wrote a book about the
horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad
quality of meat and the dangerous working
• It was meant to be a propaganda piece for
socialism, but inflamed the public against the
food industry.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
• 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of
mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it
gave the government broad powers to ensure
the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to
abolish the "patent" drug trade.
• Required correct labeling of any habit forming
• Still in existence as the FDA.
Pure Food and Drug Act
• An environmental conference to study the
nation's natural resources and how to
conserve them.
Conservation Conference, 1908
• Caused by mistrust for and lowered
confidence in bankers.
• Many in business blamed the Panic on
Roosevelt’s “boat-rocking” economic policies.
Panic of 1907
• Taft, Republican, won over Bryan, Democrat,
because of the support of Roosevelt.
• This was the 3rd and last time William Jennings
Bryan ran for president.
Election of 1908
• Prominent Republican senator and
businessman, he was the Republican
campaign manager and king-maker.
Mark Hanna
• 1911 - Increased industrial output by
rationalizing and refining the production
• A pioneer in the efficiency movement.
• Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor
• __was called the "Laboratory of Democracy"
because many of the reform ideas of the
Progressive era came out of __.
• A great debater and political leader who
believed in libertarian reforms.
• He was a major leader of the Progressive
movement from Wisconsin.
Robert M. LaFollette
• Formed to set safety standards and to enforce
fair practices of business competition for the
sake of the U.S. public.
Regulatory commissions
• Founded the National Consumer's League,
which wanted legislation to protect
consumers from being cheated or harmed by
big business.
Florence Kelley
• The idea was that the people of a city should
decide how the city is run.
Home Rule for cities
• A form of municipal government in which voters elect a
small commission, typically from five to seven
members, on a plurality-at-large basis.
• These commissioners constitute the legislative body of
the city and as a group are responsible for taxation,
appropriations, ordinances, and other general
• Individual commissioners are assigned responsibility
for a specific aspect of municipal affairs, such as public
works, finance, or public safety.
• Often called the Galveston Plan, where it was first
implemented in 1900 after a devastating hurricane.
Commission Plan
• Under this, the elected governing body is
responsible for the legislative function of the
• The elected body appoints a professional
manager to oversee the administrative
operations, implement its policies, and advise
City-Manager Plan
• 27th President (1908-1912), he was the only
man to serve as both President of the U.S. and
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
• Overweight, he was the only president to get
stuck in the White House bathtub.
• Roosevelt supported him in 1908, but later ran
against him.
William Howard Taft
• Originally started in 1903 as the Department
of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with
the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create
the ___.
Department of Labor
• With Progressives calling for a reduction in
tariffs, this bill was passed, initially lowering
• It was amended over 1000 times, pleasing no
• Already disillusioned with Taft, Progressives
began to abandon him.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
• Cabinet members fought over conservation
efforts and how much effort and money
should be put into conserving national
• Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department,
accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of
abandoning federal conservation policy.
• Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
• Speaker of the House, he could make or break
legislation from 1903 to 1910.
• He represented the Old Guard, which
controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics
led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910
limiting the power of the Speaker.
Uncle Joe Cannon
• Congressman from Nebraska, he was a reformer
Republican who helped lead the rules change of
1910 which ended the arbitrary power of the
• Known as the father of the Tennessee Valley
Authority, he was author of the 20th
• Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist
who tried to keep the U.S. out of WW I.
Senator George Norris
• United States Supreme Court’s interpretation of
the Sherman Antitrust Act.
• The rule was stated and applied in the case of
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States.
• It holds that only combinations and contracts
unreasonably restraining trade are subject to
actions under the anti-trust laws and that size,
and possession of monopoly power is not illegal.
Rule of Reason
• Taft and Knox came up with it to further
foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under
the Roosevelt Corollary.
• It was meant to avoid military intervention by
giving foreign countries monetary aid.
• US investment could be used as justification
for US intervention.
"Dollar Diplomacy"
• Developed dollar diplomacy with Taft, he
encouraged and protected U.S. investment
Secretary of State Knox
• New Nationalism was Theodore Roosevelt's
Progressive political philosophy during the
1912 election.
• He made the case for what he called the New
Nationalism in a speech in __ in August 1910.
Osawatomie, Kansas
• They split over ideology.
• One believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while
allowing "good" trusts to continue.
• The fat one opposed all trusts.
• When the fat one filed suit against US Steel,
the famous one had enough.
• One wanted more involvement in foreign
affairs, and the fat one was an isolationist.
Taft-Roosevelt split
• The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party
in the 1912 election.
• He ran as a Progressive against Republican
Taft, beating him but in the process throwing
the election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
Bull Moose Party
• He believed that monopolies had to be broken
up and that the government must regulate
• He believed in competition, and called his
economic plan “__."
Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
• The central issue he argued was human welfare
versus property rights.
• He insisted that only a powerful federal
government could regulate the economy and
guarantee social justice.
• He wanted executive agencies to regulate
business. The federal government should be used
to protect the laboring men, women and children
from what he believed to be exploitation.
• In terms of policy, it supported child labor laws
and minimum wage laws for women.
Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
• Editor who wrote The Promise of American
Life about government authority being used to
balance economic activity.
• This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's
"New Nationalism."
Herbert Croly
Wilson, Democrat
Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose)
Taft, Republican
Debs, Socialist.
The issues were the economy and growing
conflict in Europe.
• Wilson won as a minority president due to the
split in the Republican party.
Election of 1912