Mexican-American War

• Essential Question:
–How did the American desire for Manifest
Destiny lead to the acquisition of Texas,
Oregon, & California?
• CPUSH Agenda for Unit 5.2:
–Manifest Destiny notes
Westward expansion brought conflict with Indians,
such as the Black Hawk War, as trails disrupted
hunting grounds and violated previous treaties
The Treaty of Fort Laramie created a
vast Indian Territory but was repeatedly
ignored by whites expanding West
In the 1840s, America realized its “manifest destiny”
by acquiring all lands to the Pacific Ocean
In 1845, the USA
annexed the
nation of Texas
In 1846, the U.S.
settled a dispute
with England to
gain Oregon
In 1848, the
USA gained new
lands in the SW
by winning the
MexicanAmerican War
In 1821,
Mexico won
from Spain
and the
new Mexican
gov’t welcomed
Americans into
Texas by offering
cheap land
Stephen F Austin became
one of the wealthiest
“Anglos” in Texas
Austin established a
community where “no
drunkard, no gambler, no
profane swearer and no
idler” would be allowed
The Mexican
settlement to
protect the
borders from
Native Americans
Mexico offered land
grants to agents
(empresarios) to sell
to settlers
They settlers would
pledge to obey
Mexican laws and
observe Roman
Americans refused to
accept Mexican laws
They would not
convert to Catholicism
They would not accept
a ban on slavery
They wanted a voice in
Mexican government
By 1834, Mexican president
Santa Anna began to view Anglos
as a threat and had Austin arrested
In 1835, Texans were in open rebellion
against the Mexican government
In 1835, the War for
Texas Independence
Texans lost at the Alamo, but
the battle created inspiration:
“Remember the Alamo!”
Davy Crockett
Jim Bowie
The Battle of San Jacinto was
the decisive victory that
resulted in the capture of
Santa Anna and independence
in 1836
Near the San Jacinto
From 1836 to 1845, Texas was an
independent nation; Sam Houston was
the first president of the Republic of Texas
In 1838, Houston invited the USA to annex
Texas, but the debate over slavery kept
America from adding Texas as a state
Democrat James K. Polk won the election of 1844
and became the “Manifest Destiny” president
He urged Congress
He also wanted to end
to make Texas the
British claims to Oregon
28th U.S. state in 1845
When Texas was admitted
into the Union in 1845,
it came in as a slave state
To make Northerners happy,
President Polk wanted to add
Oregon as a free state, but…
Oregon residents
& President Polk
demanded the entire
“54°40’ or fight!”
jointly occupied
by the USA &
But, the U.S. and Britain
divided Oregon
along 49° parallel,
and Oregon became a
free territory in 1846
When Texas won its
independence from Mexico
in 1836, the 2 sides disagreed
over the territorial borders of
the Republic of Texas
When the
U.S. annexed
Texas 9 years later,
this land claim was
not settled
The Mexican-American War (1846—1848)
This land dispute led to
Mexican-American War
from 1846 to 1848
In 1846, President
Polk sent General
Zachary Taylor
across the
Rio Grande River
which provoked
Mexico into war
The U.S. quicklyJohn
wonC Fremont
in California
the MexicanThe
Zachary Taylor won in
northern Mexico
Stephen Kearney
captured New Mexico
Winfield Scott captured
Mexico City
The Mexican-American War ended with
the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848
The USA gained
Mexico gave up (ceded)
all of Texas to the
territory in the Southwest,
Rio Grande River
called the Mexican Cession
5 years later, the U.S.
bought the Gadsden
Purchase for $10 million
to build a southern railroad
America: The Story of Us Western expansion (start at 6.40)
“Life on the Oregon Trail” Excerpt #1
“Pioneers along the Oregon Trail averaged 15 miles per
day, almost exclusively on foot, for nearly 6 months”
Excerpt #2 “Covered wagons dominated traffic on the
Oregon Trail. The typical wagon was about 11 feet long,
4 feet wide, and 2 feet deep, with bows of hardwood
supporting a bonnet that rose about 5 feet above the
wagon bed. With only one set of springs under the
driver's seat and none on the axles, nearly everyone
walked along with their herds of cattle and sheep.”
Excerpt #3 “A typical day started before dawn with
breakfast of coffee, bacon, and dry bread. The wagon
was repacked in time to get underway by 7 o'clock.
At noon, they stopped for a cold meal of coffee, beans,
and bacon. Then back on the road again. Around 5 in
the afternoon, they circled the wagons for the evening.
The men secured the animals and made repairs while
women cooked a hot meal of tea, boiled rice, and bacon”
Excerpt #4 “When the Trail got crowded (in 1849 and
later) camping became more difficult. The biggest
problem was finding fuel for the campfires. Soon
trees were scarce and there was only one alternative:
buffalo dung. No one liked collecting it, but it did
burn and gave off a consistent odorless flame”
Excerpt #5 “Weather-related dangers included
thunderstorms, hailstones, lightning, tornadoes,
and high winds. The intense heat of the deserts caused
wood to shrink & rims to fall of axles. The pioneers’ lips
blistered and split in the dry air, and their only remedy
was to rub axle grease on their lips. River crossings were
often dangerous: even in slow currents & shallow water,
wagon wheels could be damaged by rocks or become
mired in the muddy bottom”
Excerpt #6 “Nearly 1 in 10 who set off on the
Oregon Trail did not survive. The two biggest causes
of death were disease and accidents. The worst disease
was cholera, caused by unsanitary conditions.
People in good spirits in the morning could be dead
by evening. Symptoms started with an intense stomach
ache, then came diarrhea and vomiting causing
dehydration. If death did not occur within the first
12 to 24 hours, the victim usually recovered”
Excerpt #7 “Indians were usually the least of the
pioneers’ problems. Tales of hostile encounters far
overshadowed actual incidents. Indian conflicts
occasionally resulted from trigger-happy emigrants who
shot at Indians for target practice. A few massacres were
highly publicized. The Ward Train was attacked by
Shoshones who tortured & murdered 19 emigrants”
• Essential Question:
–How did the American desire for Manifest
Destiny lead to the acquisition of Texas,
Oregon, & California?
• CPUSH Agenda for Unit 5.2:
–Manifest Destiny notes
Manifest Destiny in the 1840s
In the 1830s, Mexico offered cheap land to
American ranchers & farmers to move to California
When the Mexican War
broke out in 1846,
Californians revolted from
Mexican rule and created
an independent nation
The California Republic
was annexed by the USA
as part of the Mexican
Cession in 1848
California Gold Rush
The discovery of gold in
San Francisco led
to a flood of Americans
to California in 1849
“Forty-Niners” hoping to
strike it rich came from
the East, Latin America,
Europe, & Asia
The California gold rush led to
a population boom in the West
America: Story of US (Gold Rush)
Gold Fever & Immigration to CA was national
Gold Fever
& Immigration
to CAFrom
was Global
the 49ers Came
Europe &
after the
By the end of the 1840s,
America had a
the USA had achieved
“continental” empire
its Manifest Destiny
from the Atlantic to Pacific
Westward expansion
stimulated the economy,
spread democracy, and
increased U.S. nationalism
But as America spread
West, sectional issues
over slavery grew
Label and date each territory and create a symbol
that explains how the USA gained the territory
Identify 10
major events
or changes
that took
place in
history from
1800 to 1850
that impacted
■In groups of two, teams must provide
an accurate sentence regarding an
event/theme in American history
during the antebellum era (1800-1860)
for each letter of the alphabet:
–A…Agriculture became more
commercial than subsistence
–Sentences must begin with nouns,
not verbs or adjectives