Government 2014-2015 Unit 4: Civil Liberties Lesson 8 I. Introduction A. Objective: Our Fifth Amendment B. Do Now: Read the Fifth Amendment and make a list of rights it protects. II. Grand Jury Indictment A. Definitions B. Text III. Double Jeopardy A. Definition B. Four Protections IV. Self-Incrimination A. Definition B. Ashcraft v. Tennessee (1944) Facts of the Case: E.E. Ashcraft was charged with hiring John Ware to murder Zelma Ida Ashcraft, E.E. Ashcraft’s wife. They both confessed and were sentenced to 99 years. Ware and Ashcraft appealed claiming that their confessions were extorted. Ware, a black man, claimed that he confessed because he feared mob violence. Ashcraft, who had been questioned for more than 38 hours, with only one 5-minute break, claimed he was threatened and abused. Question: Were both men coerced into confession, thereby violating their Fifth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment right against self-incrimination? Decision: C. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Facts of the Case: On March 13. 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested for the kidnapping and rape of an 18-year-old girl ten days earlier. After two hours of interrogation by police officers, Miranda signed a confession to the rape charge on forms that included the types statement “I hereby swear that I make this statement voluntarily and of my own free will, with no threats, coercion, or promises of immunity, and with full knowledge of my legal rights, understanding any statement I make may be used against me.” However, at no time was Miranda told of his right to counsel. Prior to being presented with the form on which he was asked to write out the confession he had already given orally, he was not advised of his right to remain silent, nor was he informed that his statements during the interrogation would be used against him. Miranda was convicted of rape and kidnapping and sentenced to 20 to 30 years imprisonment on each charge. Question: Did the police practice of interrogating individuals without notifying them of their rights to counsel and their protection against self-incrimination violate the Fifth Amendment? Decision: V. Due Process A. Define B. Fourteenth Amendment C. Procedural Due Process D. Substantive Due Process Government 2014-2015 VI. Eminent Domain A. Define B. Kelo v. City of New London Facts of the Case: New London, a city in Connecticut, used its eminent domain authority to seize private property to sell to private developers. The city said developing the land would create jobs and increase tax revenues. Kelo Susette and others whose property was seized sued New London. They argued the city violated the Fifth Amendment’s takings clause, which guaranteed the government will not take private property for public use without just compensation. Specifically they argued taking private property to sell to private developers was not public use. Question: Did the city violate the Fifth Amendment’s takings clause if the city takes private property and sells it for private development, with the hopes the development will help the city’s bad economy? Decision: VII. Conclusion A. The Fifth Amendment protects us from government abuse. B. Due process refers to how and why laws are enforced. It applies to all persons, citizen or alien, as well as to corporations. 1. The 5th Amendment obliges the national government to provide due process. 2. The 14th Amendment obliges the state governments to provide due process. C. The difference between Procedural and Substantive Due Process is this: 1. Substantive due process asks the question of whether the government’s deprivation of a person’s life, liberty, or property is justified by a sufficient purpose. 2. Procedural due process, by contrast, asks whether the government has followed the proper procedures when it takes away life, liberty or property. Key Terms, Concepts, Events, People, and Places: Grand Jury Indictment Double Jeopardy Self-Incrimination Miranda v. Arizona Miranda Rights Due Process Procedural Due Process Substantive Due Process Fourteenth Amendment Eminent Domain Kelo v. New London Questions to Consider: 1. What right is the Fifth Amendment protecting by guaranteeing an indictment by a grand jury? 2. What right is the Fifth Amendment protecting by prohibiting double jeopardy? 3. What right is the Fifth Amendment protecting by prohibiting self-incrimination? 4. What is the difference between procedural and substantive due process? 5. What is the connection between the fifth and the fourteenth amendments? 6. What right is the Fifth Amendment protecting by defining eminent domain?