Cell Biology - SC286Organisms

Brad Barton
What makes up a eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cell’s have a membrane bound nuclei
They contain specialised structures known as
2 Different types of cells
What is a cell organelle?
Eukaryotic organisms have specialises
structures known as organelles. Organelles are
small structures within cells that perform
different tasks
Organelle means little organ, each organelle is a
little organ that preforms specific tasks
What do organelles do?
Function Create chemical
energy from
solar energy
- A plastid usually found in plant cells
- Contain green chlorophyll where photosynthesis
takes place
- Spherical shape
- Visible when cell is not dividing
- Contains DNA for protein manufacture
The “brains” of the cell, the
nucleus directs cell activities
and contains genetic
material called
chromosomes made of DNA.
Endoplasmic reticulum
- Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane
- Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane
- Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system
- Smooth type: lacks ribosomes
- Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
Function Transports all
types of things
around the cell
What do organelles do? Continued
Function - Each cell contains thousands
Make protein
- Miniature 'protein factories'
- Composes 25% of cell's mass
- Stationary type: embedded in rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Mobile type: injects proteins directly into cytoplasm
Function Makes energy
out of food
- Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure
- Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae
- Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on cristae
- Controls level of water and other materials in cell
- Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and
forms urea
Function Supports the cell
Cell wall
- Most commonly found in plant cells
- Controls turgity
- Extracellular structure surrounding plasma membrane
- Primary cell wall: extremely elastic
- Secondary cell wall: forms around primary cell wall after growth is complete
Difference between animal and plant cells
• The main difference between animal and plant cells is
that plant cells have chloroplasts
• Plants have a rigid cell wall while animals do not
• Animals have phagocytic cells while plants do not
• Plants have chloroplasts which enable them to
photosynthesize unlike animals
• Plant cells also contain a larger enclosed by a
membrane compared to animal cells.
• Animal cells depend on an analogous system of gapjunctions to communicate between cells, plant cells use
linking pores in their cell wall to connect to each other
and pass information.